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Chapter 5. Variations in Consciousness. Consciousness: Personal Awareness. Awareness of Internal and External Stimuli Levels of awareness James – stream of consciousness Freud – unconscious Sleep/dreaming research. The Electroencephalograph: A Physiological Index of Consciousness.

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chapter 5

Chapter 5

Variations in Consciousness

consciousness personal awareness
Consciousness: Personal Awareness
  • Awareness of Internal and External Stimuli
    • Levels of awareness
      • James – stream of consciousness
      • Freud – unconscious
      • Sleep/dreaming research
the electroencephalograph a physiological index of consciousness
The Electroencephalograph: A Physiological Index of Consciousness
  • EEG – monitoring of brain electrical activity
  • Brain-waves
    • Amplitude (height)
    • Frequency (cycles per second)
      • Beta (13-24 cps) - alert
      • Alpha (8-12 cps) - relaxing
      • Theta (4-7 cps) - sleep
      • Delta (<4 cps) – deep sleep
      • Because All Toros Dream
biological rhythms and sleep
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
  • Circadian Rhythms – 24 hr biological cycles
    • Regulation of sleep/other body functions
    • Free-running (without external stimuli) it will be closer to 25 hours
  • Physiological pathway of the biological clock:
    • Light levels -> retina -> suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus -> pineal gland -> secretion of melatonin
  • Melatonin and circadian rhythms
    • Melatonin used to help with jetlag
sleep waking research
Sleep/Waking Research
  • Instruments:
    • Electroencephalograph – brain electrical activity
    • Electromyograph – muscle activity
    • Electrooculograph – eye movements
    • Other bodily functions also observed
sleep stages cycling through sleep
Sleep Stages: Cycling Through Sleep
  • Stage 1: brief, transitional (1-7 minutes)
    • alpha -> theta
    • Hypnic (myoclonic) jerks
  • Stage 2: sleep spindles (10-25 minutes)
  • Stages 3 & 4 : slow-wave sleep (30 minutes)
  • Stage 5: REM, EEG similar to awake, vivid dreaming (initially a few minutes, progressively longer as cycle through the stages)
    • Developmental differences in REM sleep
      • Infants spend much more time in REM than do adults.
the neural bases of sleep
The Neural Bases of Sleep
  • Brain Structures:
    • Ascending reticular activating system
    • Pons, medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system
  • Neurotransmitters:
    • Acetylcholine and serotonin
    • Also norepinephrine, dopamine, and GABA
why do we sleep
Why Do We Sleep?
  • Hypothesis 1:
    • Sleep evolved to conserve organisms’ energy
  • Hypothesis 2:
    • Immobilization during sleep is adaptive because it reduces danger
  • Hypothesis 3:
    • Sleep helps animals to restore energy and other bodily resources
sleep deprivation
Sleep Deprivation
  • Complete deprivation
    • 3 or 4 days max
  • Partial deprivation or sleep restriction
    • impaired attention, reaction time, coordination, and decision making
    • accidents: Chernobyl, Exxon Valdez
  • Selective deprivation
    • REM and slow-wave sleep: rebound effect
sleep problems
Sleep Problems
  • A majority of adults in the U.S. (62%) experienced a sleep problem a few nights per week or more during the past year. (Sleep Ominbus Survey 2000)
  • Insomnia – difficulty falling or staying asleep - (58%) – F 5.10
  • Narcolepsy – falling asleep uncontrollably
  • Sleep Apnea – reflexive gasping for air that awakens - (10%) – current estimates: 21 million in US and 470 million in the world
  • Nightmares – anxiety arousing dreams - REM
  • Night Terrors – intense arousal and panic - NREM
  • Somnambulism – sleepwalking
dreams and dreaming content and significance
Dreams and Dreaming: Content and Significance
  • Dreams – mental experiences during sleep
    • Content usually familiar
    • Common themes
    • hallucinatory imagery
    • discontinuities
    • delusional acceptance of the content
    • difficulties remembering
    • Waking life spillover – day residue
  • Western vs. Non-Western interpretations
dreams
DREAMS
  • Hobson & McCarley – activation – synthesis hypothesis
  • Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
    • wish fulfillment
    • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings
  • Manifest Content
    • remembered story line
  • Latent Content
    • underlying meaning
hypnosis altered state of consciousness or role playing
Hypnosis: Altered State of Consciousness or Role Playing?
  • Hypnosis = a systematic procedure that increases suggestibility
  • Hypnotic susceptibility: individual differences
  • Effects produced through hypnosis:
    • Anesthesia
    • Sensory distortions and hallucinations
    • Disinhibition
    • Posthypnotic suggestions and amnesia
hypnosis
HYPNOSIS
  • Orne & Evans (1965)
    • control group instructed to “pretend”
    • unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones
  • Posthypnotic Suggestion
    • suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized
    • used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors
hypnosis1
HYPNOSIS
  • Dissociation
    • a split in consciousness
    • allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
  • Hidden Observer
    • Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
meditation
Meditation
  • Meditation = practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control
  • Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation (TM)
    • Potential physiological benefits
      • Similar to effective relaxation procedures
principal abused drugs and their effects
Principal Abused Drugs and Their Effects
  • 6 categories of psychoactive drugs
    • Narcotics (opiates) – pain relieving
    • Sedatives – sleep inducing
    • Stimulants – increase CNS activity
    • Hallucinogens – distort sensory and perceptual experience
    • Cannabis – produce mild, relaxed euphoria
    • Alcohol – produces relaxed euphoria, decreases in inhibitions
    • MDMA (ecstasy) – produces a warm, friendly euphoria
drugs

Big

effect

Response to

first exposure

Drug

effect

After repeated

exposure, more

drug is needed

to produce

same effect

Little

effect

Large

Small

Drug dose

DRUGS
  • Tolerance
    • diminishing effect with regular use
  • Withdrawal
    • discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
drugs1
DRUGS
  • Depressants (Sedatives)
    • drugs that reduce neural activity
    • slow body functions
      • alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
  • Stimulants
    • drugs that excite neural activity
    • speed up body functions
      • caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine
drugs2
DRUGS
  • Hallucinogens

psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

      • LSD
  • Barbiturates
    • drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
drugs3
DRUGS
  • Opiates (Narcotics)
    • opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
    • opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)
  • Amphetamines (Stimulants)
    • drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
drugs4
DRUGS
  • Ecstasy (MDMA)
    • synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen
    • both short-term and long-term health risks
  • LSD
    • lysergic acid diethylamide
    • a powerful hallucinogenic drug
    • also known as acid
  • THC
    • the major active ingredient in marijuana
    • triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
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