Chapter 5
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 33

Chapter 5 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 72 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 5. Variations in Consciousness. Consciousness: Personal Awareness. Awareness of Internal and External Stimuli Levels of awareness James – stream of consciousness Freud – unconscious Sleep/dreaming research. The Electroencephalograph: A Physiological Index of Consciousness.

Download Presentation

Chapter 5

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Variations in Consciousness


Consciousness personal awareness

Consciousness: Personal Awareness

  • Awareness of Internal and External Stimuli

    • Levels of awareness

      • James – stream of consciousness

      • Freud – unconscious

      • Sleep/dreaming research


The electroencephalograph a physiological index of consciousness

The Electroencephalograph: A Physiological Index of Consciousness

  • EEG – monitoring of brain electrical activity

  • Brain-waves

    • Amplitude (height)

    • Frequency (cycles per second)

      • Beta (13-24 cps) - alert

      • Alpha (8-12 cps) - relaxing

      • Theta (4-7 cps) - sleep

      • Delta (<4 cps) – deep sleep

      • Because All Toros Dream


Biological rhythms and sleep

Biological Rhythms and Sleep

  • Circadian Rhythms – 24 hr biological cycles

    • Regulation of sleep/other body functions

    • Free-running (without external stimuli) it will be closer to 25 hours

  • Physiological pathway of the biological clock:

    • Light levels -> retina -> suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus -> pineal gland -> secretion of melatonin

  • Melatonin and circadian rhythms

    • Melatonin used to help with jetlag


Sleep waking research

Sleep/Waking Research

  • Instruments:

    • Electroencephalograph – brain electrical activity

    • Electromyograph – muscle activity

    • Electrooculograph – eye movements

    • Other bodily functions also observed


Sleep stages cycling through sleep

Sleep Stages: Cycling Through Sleep

  • Stage 1: brief, transitional (1-7 minutes)

    • alpha -> theta

    • Hypnic (myoclonic) jerks

  • Stage 2: sleep spindles (10-25 minutes)

  • Stages 3 & 4 : slow-wave sleep (30 minutes)

  • Stage 5: REM, EEG similar to awake, vivid dreaming (initially a few minutes, progressively longer as cycle through the stages)

    • Developmental differences in REM sleep

      • Infants spend much more time in REM than do adults.


Chapter 5

Figure 5.5 An overview of the cycle of sleep


The neural bases of sleep

The Neural Bases of Sleep

  • Brain Structures:

    • Ascending reticular activating system

    • Pons, medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system

  • Neurotransmitters:

    • Acetylcholine and serotonin

    • Also norepinephrine, dopamine, and GABA


Why do we sleep

Why Do We Sleep?

  • Hypothesis 1:

    • Sleep evolved to conserve organisms’ energy

  • Hypothesis 2:

    • Immobilization during sleep is adaptive because it reduces danger

  • Hypothesis 3:

    • Sleep helps animals to restore energy and other bodily resources


Sleep deprivation

Sleep Deprivation

  • Complete deprivation

    • 3 or 4 days max

  • Partial deprivation or sleep restriction

    • impaired attention, reaction time, coordination, and decision making

    • accidents: Chernobyl, Exxon Valdez

  • Selective deprivation

    • REM and slow-wave sleep: rebound effect


Sleep problems

Sleep Problems

  • A majority of adults in the U.S. (62%) experienced a sleep problem a few nights per week or more during the past year. (Sleep Ominbus Survey 2000)

  • Insomnia – difficulty falling or staying asleep - (58%) – F 5.10

  • Narcolepsy – falling asleep uncontrollably

  • Sleep Apnea – reflexive gasping for air that awakens - (10%) – current estimates: 21 million in US and 470 million in the world

  • Nightmares – anxiety arousing dreams - REM

  • Night Terrors – intense arousal and panic - NREM

  • Somnambulism – sleepwalking


Dreams and dreaming content and significance

Dreams and Dreaming: Content and Significance

  • Dreams – mental experiences during sleep

    • Content usually familiar

    • Common themes

    • hallucinatory imagery

    • discontinuities

    • delusional acceptance of the content

    • difficulties remembering

    • Waking life spillover – day residue

  • Western vs. Non-Western interpretations


Dreams

DREAMS

  • Hobson & McCarley – activation – synthesis hypothesis

  • Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)

    • wish fulfillment

    • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings

  • Manifest Content

    • remembered story line

  • Latent Content

    • underlying meaning


Hypnosis altered state of consciousness or role playing

Hypnosis: Altered State of Consciousness or Role Playing?

  • Hypnosis = a systematic procedure that increases suggestibility

  • Hypnotic susceptibility: individual differences

  • Effects produced through hypnosis:

    • Anesthesia

    • Sensory distortions and hallucinations

    • Disinhibition

    • Posthypnotic suggestions and amnesia


Hypnosis

HYPNOSIS

  • Orne & Evans (1965)

    • control group instructed to “pretend”

    • unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones

  • Posthypnotic Suggestion

    • suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized

    • used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors


Hypnosis1

HYPNOSIS

  • Dissociation

    • a split in consciousness

    • allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others

  • Hidden Observer

    • Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis


Meditation

Meditation

  • Meditation = practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control

  • Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation (TM)

    • Potential physiological benefits

      • Similar to effective relaxation procedures


Principal abused drugs and their effects

Principal Abused Drugs and Their Effects

  • 6 categories of psychoactive drugs

    • Narcotics (opiates) – pain relieving

    • Sedatives – sleep inducing

    • Stimulants – increase CNS activity

    • Hallucinogens – distort sensory and perceptual experience

    • Cannabis – produce mild, relaxed euphoria

    • Alcohol – produces relaxed euphoria, decreases in inhibitions

    • MDMA (ecstasy) – produces a warm, friendly euphoria


Drugs

Big

effect

Response to

first exposure

Drug

effect

After repeated

exposure, more

drug is needed

to produce

same effect

Little

effect

Large

Small

Drug dose

DRUGS

  • Tolerance

    • diminishing effect with regular use

  • Withdrawal

    • discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use


Drugs1

DRUGS

  • Depressants (Sedatives)

    • drugs that reduce neural activity

    • slow body functions

      • alcohol, barbiturates, opiates

  • Stimulants

    • drugs that excite neural activity

    • speed up body functions

      • caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine


Drugs2

DRUGS

  • Hallucinogens

    psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

    • LSD

  • Barbiturates

    • drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement


  • Drugs3

    DRUGS

    • Opiates (Narcotics)

      • opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

      • opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)

    • Amphetamines (Stimulants)

      • drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes


    Drugs4

    DRUGS

    • Ecstasy (MDMA)

      • synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen

      • both short-term and long-term health risks

    • LSD

      • lysergic acid diethylamide

      • a powerful hallucinogenic drug

      • also known as acid

    • THC

      • the major active ingredient in marijuana

      • triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations


  • Login