Nats 101 lecture 9 atmospheric moisture
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NATS 101 Lecture 9 Atmospheric Moisture. Hydrological Cycle. Ultimate source of all fresh water. 15%. 85%. 50%. 50%. Ahrens Fig. 4.1. 85% of water vapor in atmosphere evaporates from oceans.

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NATS 101 Lecture 9 Atmospheric Moisture

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Nats 101 lecture 9 atmospheric moisture

NATS 101Lecture 9Atmospheric Moisture


Hydrological cycle

Hydrological Cycle

Ultimate source of all fresh water

15%

85%

50%

50%

Ahrens Fig. 4.1

85% of water vapor in atmosphere evaporates from oceans.

About 50% of precipitation that falls over land is runoff, and the other 50% is transpired/evaporated.

Water vapor molecules reside in atmosphere for one week.


Humid air

Humid Air

  • Humid air is a mixture of molecules that make up dry air (mostly N2 and O2) and lighter water vapor (H2O) molecules.

  • Each type of molecule contributes a fraction of total air pressure, or apartial pressure,proportional to the number molecules per unit volume. The partial pressure of water vapor is termed thevapor pressure.


Saturation vapor pressure

Saturation Vapor Pressure

  • The partial vapor pressure at which the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation in a closed system is called thesaturation vapor pressureor SVP. The SVP effectively denotes the maximum water vapor that air the can “hold”.

  • SVP depends strongly on temperature.

  • Vapor pressure and SVP provide a measure of the actual water vapor content and the air’s potential capacity, respectively.


Nats 101 lecture 9 atmospheric moisture

Williams p62

saturatedE=C

warmedE>C

cooled E<C

dry E>C

SVP depends on temperature. As temperature increases, more molecules are energetic enough to escape into the air.

Concept applies to an ice surface. SVP over ice is lower because water molecules are bonded more tightly to ice.

For the temperatures of interest, some water molecules are energetic enough to escape into atmosphere and SVP>0.


Svp and temperature

SVP and Temperature

SVP nearly doubles with a 10oC warming

SVP and T Graph

Supercooled water droplets can exist to temps of -40oC

For temps below 0oC, SVP runs 10%-30% lower over ice

Ahrens Fig. 4.5


Relative humidity

Relative Humidity

Air with a RH=100% is said to besaturated.

RH depends on air temperature (SVP).

RH changes by either changing air’s water vapor content or the air’s temperature.


Relative humidity1

Relative Humidity

Ahrens Fig. 4.6

The RH for constant water vapor content can fluctuate greatly during the course of the day solely from the temperature changes


Relative humidity ahrens appendix b

Relative Humidity(Ahrens, Appendix B)

Consider air that is saturated at 0oC

TempVPSVPRH

0oC6 mb 6 mb100%

10oC6 mb12 mb 50%

20oC6 mb23 mb 28%

30oC6 mb42 mb 14%

40oC6 mb68 mb 9%


Other measures of humidity

Other Measures of Humidity


Dew point

Dew Point

  • DP-temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure to become saturated. Higher DP  Higher water vapor content.

  • DP is agood indicatorof the actual water vapor content since air pressures vary very little along the earth’s surface.

  • DP is plotted on surface weather maps.

  • DP depression (Temp-DP) is plotted aloft.


Arizona dew point ranges

Arizona Dew Point Ranges

Vapor PressureDew Point

24 mb 20oC

12 mb 10oC

6 mb 0oC

3 mb-10oC


Wet bulb temperature

Wet Bulb Temperature

Wet Bulb Temp-Lowest temp to which air can be cooled by evaporation of water into it.

Warmer than dew point since moisture is being added to air which raises dew point.

Measured with slingpsychrometer.

wet bulb

dry thermometer

Ahrens, Fig 4.9


Wet bulb temperature ahrens appendix d

Wet Bulb Temperature(Ahrens, Appendix D)

Wet bulb temperature lies about 30% of the way from the dew point to the temperature

Application-Wet bulb temp gives maximum possible efficiency for a swamp cooler

MonthMAXDew PWet BulbJune100oF 37oF 65oF July100oF 63oF 75oF


Heat index

Heat Index

Humidity reduces the rate at which sweat evaporates. Thus, the cooling rate is lowered.

Tucson Record MAX

July MAX

June MAX

Rocky Pt Summer

Ahrens, Fig 4.8


Humid air is less dense

Humid Air is Less Dense

Williams, p72


Nats 101 lecture 9 atmospheric moisture

0.5% lighter

Williams, p72


Summary moisture

Summary: Moisture

  • Water vapor comes from the evaporation of sea water and resides in atmo. for ~1 week.

  • Air has a saturation level for water vapor

  • Saturation level depends on air temperature

  • Humid air is less dense than dry air

  • Water vapor content can be quantified by RH, dew point temp, wet bulb temp


Assignment for next lecture

Assignment for Next Lecture

  • Topic -Cloud and Fog Formation

  • Reading -Ahrens pages 89-96

  • Problems -4.3, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15


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