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Qing Dynasty 清朝 (1644-1911). Emperor Shun Zhi. the 1st Emperor of Qing Dynasty after Mancus conquered China. “Henry” Pu Yi Last Emperor of China and Qing Dynasty. 5. China and the New Imperialism. What trade rights did westerners seek in China? And how did they go about getting them?

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Qing Dynasty 清朝 (1644-1911)

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Qing dynasty 1644 1911

Qing Dynasty

清朝

(1644-1911)

Emperor Shun Zhi

the 1st Emperor of Qing Dynasty

after Mancus conquered China

“Henry” Pu Yi

Last Emperor of China and Qing Dynasty


China and the new imperialism

5

China and the New Imperialism

  • What trade rights did westerners seek in China? And how did they go about getting them?

  • What internal problems did Chinese reformers try to resolve?

  • How did the Qing dynasty come to an end?


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

Emperor Qianlong

Empress Dowager Cixi

1736-1795

1835-1908


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

“As Your Ambassador can see for himself we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange and ingenious and have no use for your country’s manufactures.”

- Emperor Qianlong

to Lord George Macartney 1792 (on a British mission for trade and commerce with China)


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

The Opium Wars

1839-1842

1856-1860


Causes of the opium wars

Causes of the Opium Wars

  • - British using opium for tea, silk and other Chinese goods

  • - Chinese productivity declines and addiction increases

  • - opium is declared illegal in China = War


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

“Therefore, the new regulations, in regard to those

barbarians who bring opium to China the penalty is

fixed at decapitation or strangulation”


Immediate results of the opium wars

Immediate Results of the Opium Wars

  • Chinese defeat – both wars

  • 10+ ports were open for the British and others

  • China was open to foreigners

  • Extraterritoriality rights for foreigners


The trade issue

5

The Trade Issue

Prior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders.

China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported.

Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the Chinese than they sold to them.

In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of Nanjing, the first in a series of “unequal treaties” that forced China to make concessions to western powers.

China paid a huge indemnity to Britain.

The British gained the island of Hong Kong.

China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality.


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

1899 French magazine


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

Unequal Treaties

1. Reimburse Britain for costs incurred fighting the Chinese

2. Open several ports to British trade

3. Provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong

4. Grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in China


Internal problems

5

Internal Problems

  • Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley.

  • The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants.

  • An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden.

  • The civil service system was rocked by bribery scandals.

  • Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history.

By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline.


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

  • What were the causes of the Opium War?

  • What were the results?


Reform efforts

5

Reform Efforts

In the 1860s, reformers launched the “self-strengthening movement” in an effort to westernize and modernize China.

The movement made limited progress because the government did not rally behind it.

After China was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War, Emperor Guang Xu launched the Hundred Days of Reform.

Conservatives soon rallied against the reform effort and the emperor was imprisoned.


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

The Taiping Rebellion1850-1865

Hong Xiuquan

The Kingdom of Heavenly Peace


Taiping rebellion

Taiping Rebellion

  • Leader: Hong Xiuchuan

  • He declared himself a brother of Jesus or a Chinese Jesus

  • Thinks that God gave him a sign that he should build heaven on earth

  • Peasants were sick of the Qing

    1. They thought that the Qing had lost the mandate of heaven

    2. The Qing were foreigners and not Chinese.


What happened

What happened?

  • started at the south of the country

  • Took Nanjing in 1853

  • Land were to be divded up

  • Equality of women

  • Foreign nations hoped to continue the trading, so they sent troops to put down the rebellion

  • Qing dynasty realized that they were too weak to put down even a small rebellion


After the taiping rebellion

After the Taiping Rebellion

  • The emperor was overthrown by the Dowager Empress Cixi.

  • She took money intended for building a defensive fleet in the Sino-Japanese War to build a garden for herself.

  • She also took the money to build a marble boat.

  • The money was meant to be used for modernization programs in education, government, agriculture, and the military.


Imperialism in china to 1914

5

Imperialism in China to 1914


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

Boxer Rebellion 1900

  • The Righteous Order of Harmonious Fists

  • Attack foreigners, missionaries, and Chinese Christians.

  • Group backed up by Empress Cixi.

  • Weakened dynasty

  • Other countries took advantage of China

  • US ask for China to be treated as an independent country.

  • “Open door” policy


Fall of the qing dynasty

5

Fall of the Qing Dynasty

As the century ended, anger grew against foreigners in China.

In the Boxer Rebellion, angry Chinese attacked foreigners across China. In response, western powers and Japan crushed the Boxers.

Defeat at the hands of foreigners led China to embark on a rush of reforms.

Chinese nationalists called for a constitutional monarchy or a republic.

When Empress Ci Xi died in 1908, China slipped into chaos.

In 1911, the Qing dynasty was toppled.

Sun Yixian was named president of the new Chinese republic. Sun wanted to rebuild China on “Three Principles of the People”: nationalism, democracy, and economic security for all Chinese.


Section 5 assessment

5

Section 5 Assessment

Which of the following is not true of Chinese trade relations with the West?a) Before the 1800s, China enjoyed a trade surplus.b) Before the 1800s, China had a trade deficit with the West.c) In 1842, China was forced to open up five ports to foreign trade.d) Before the 1800s, China strictly limited foreign trade.

What happened in the Boxer Rebellion?a) Angry Chinese attacked foreigners in China.b) The Chinese started a war with Japan.c) Western imperialists attacked Chinese peasants. d) Chinese peasants rose up against the government.

Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.


Section 5 assessment1

5

Section 5 Assessment

Which of the following is not true of Chinese trade relations with the West?a) Before the 1800s, China enjoyed a trade surplus.b) Before the 1800s, China had a trade deficit with the West.c) In 1842, China was forced to open up five ports to foreign trade.d) Before the 1800s, China strictly limited foreign trade.

What happened in the Boxer Rebellion?a) Angry Chinese attacked foreigners in China.b) The Chinese started a war with Japan.c) Western imperialists attacked Chinese peasants. d) Chinese peasants rose up against the government.

Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

Revolution of 1911

Dr. Sun Yat-sen

Gen. Yuan Shikai


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

Overthrow of Manchu Dynasty (1644-1911)

  • 1911 Manchu Dynasty

  • Sun Yat-sen becomes president

  • Hopes to establish govt. based

    on the three principles of the people.

1. Nationalism

2. Democracy

3. People’s Livelihood

Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925)


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

Era of the Warlords (1916-1926)

  • Local concentrations of power emerge

  • military leaders & local gentry take control of the provinces.

  • Warlord armies terrorize the countryside.

  • Millions of peasants die of famine & disease.

  • Peasants’ desire for land went unresolved; landless grew


Warlords 1913 28

Warlords (1913-28)


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

World War I--Asia

Japan:

  • Seeking a foothold in China

  • 1917-China aides allies vs.Germany

  • 1919 Treaty of Versailles:

  • Japan gains territory & privileges previously belonging to Germany in China.

  • Result: May Fourth Movement


Treaty of versailles 1919

Treaty of Versailles (1919)

All German privileges in China’s Shandong Peninsula were “transferred” to Japan


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

May Fourth Movement: May 4, 1919

  • students protest in Peking.

  • slogan: ‘Down with the Imperialists’

  • becomes a nationalist movement:

1. Spreads to other cities

2. Nationalism & anti-imperialist sentiment grow.


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

May Fourth Movement: May 4, 1919

Outcome:

  • Create broad based coalition.

  • Force release of imprisoned students

  • dismissal of Japanese officials from govt.

  • reformers turn against Sun

    Yat-sen’s belief in western

    democracy.


New political parties

New political parties

Nationalist Party (GMD) was established

Sun Yat-Sen died in 1925

Chiang Kai-Shek was the military leader

Communist Party was established in 1921

Mao ZeDong was one of its founding members


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

The Chinese Civil War 1926-1949

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek

Chairman Mao Zedong


Qing dynasty 1644 1911

Why is 1911 a significant year for China?

Who was Dr. Sun Yat-sen?

Why/how did the May 4th (1919) Movement begin?

Who was the leader of KMT/GMD or Nationalist Party?

Who was the leader of the Communist Party?

Who do you think won the Civil War?


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