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Chapter 19: Islam and Asia. Warm Up Chapter 18. 5. Mercantilism: 6. What did capitalism bring to the New World? 7. Explain what “goods” were traded along the Triangle Trade “Atlantic Circuit”. Chartered companies were Private investors with trade monopolies in colonies

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warm up chapter 18
Warm Up Chapter 18

5. Mercantilism:

6. What did capitalism bring to the New World?

7. Explain what “goods” were traded along the Triangle Trade “Atlantic Circuit”

  • Chartered companies were
    • Private investors with trade monopolies in colonies
    • Maritime manufactures of maps and charts
    • Companies of missionaries and religious societies
    • Groups of Amerindian investors who pooled money and resources
  • The expansion of sugar plantations in the West Indies required
    • Increase in arable land
    • Increase in African slave trade
    • Creation of new markets among the Amerindians
    • Government consultants to oversee farming
  • Manumission permitted slaves to
    • Sell their surplus produce or goods from their own work
    • Have time off during certain religious holidays
    • Purchase or receive their freedom from slavery
    • Marry and not have families separated
  • The clockwise network of trade in the Atlantic was the
    • Continental Trade Route
    • Reverse Option Market
    • European Circuit
    • Atlantic Circuit

I. Ottoman Empire to 1750

    • A. Expansion and Frontiers
    • Osman established the Ottoman Empire in 1300 in northwest Anatolia. He and successors captured the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and established a general border with Iran
    • Egypt and Syria, Algeria and Tunis, Belgrade and Rhodes all were added to the Ottoman Empire
    • Ottomans fought with Venice for 200 years and forced the Venetians to pay a tribute.
    • Ottomans fought with Muslims merchants to drive out Portuguese in the Red Sea

B. Central Institutions

  • Ottomans forced Balkan Christian men to fight: calling them Janissaries
  • Janissaries fought on foot and were armed with guns
  • Military class was the only class exempt from taxation
  • The sultan supplied justice and defense for the commoners (raya) and the commoners supplied taxes to support the military.

C. Crisis of Military State

  • Janissaries impact on society:
  • become more important and larger however firearms were very expensive
  • Calvary decreased as firearms become more prevalent
  • The use of short term mercenaries brought rebellions
  • Janissaries begin to overtake empire by marrying, starting businesses, and enrolling sons in Janissary corps

D. Economic Change and Growing Weakness

  • Sultan secluded himself and the Janissaries became political elite
  • Europeans were finding other countries to trade with: overland trade had declined with Mongol fall
  • Europeans were overlooking Ottoman Empire in trade

II. SafavidEmpire 1502-1722

    • A. The Rise of the Safavids
    • Ismail declared himself shah of Iran in 1502 and ordering all followers Shi’ite Muslims
    • Iran (Shi’ite) became increasingly tense with its Sunni neighbors
    • B. Tale of Two Cities: Isfahan and Istanbul
    • Istanbul was a busy port city: location gave it a great cosmopolitan character with much business
    • Isfahan was an inland city with few Europeans: location was inland and was not a cosmopolitan city
    • Women in both cities were confined to the home

C. Economic Crises and Population Collapse

  • Manufactures included silk and carpets with small productivity
  • The expense of firearms forced the Safavids to establish a slave corp of soldiers
  • Decline of overland trade brought the capture of Isfahan in 1722
  • Safavids also never had a navy and relied on English and Dutch for naval support

III. MughalEmpire 1526-1761

    • A. Political Foundations
    • Babur and Akbar establish this empire
    • Mughal empire relied on Europeans to be their navy

B. Central Decay and Regional Challenges

  • Cities were regionalized and could not unite: schism between Hindu and Muslim was still very apparent, Akbar attempted to appease each religion
  • French intruded and dominated the trade in India
  • Factors: land grant system, failure to unite cities, and rise of regional powers
  • Mughal empire broke into regional powers

IV. Maritime Worlds of Islam

    • A. Muslims in Southeast Asia
    • Islam spread throughout these countries by water trade
    • The people of these countries developed Islam to their own understanding
    • B. European Powers and Southern Seas
    • Dutch drove out Portuguese in Malacca in 1641 and established their colonial capital at Batavia (Jakarta)
    • European merchants came to Southeast Asia.
    • Dutch could not control monopoly on spice and turned to lumber and coffee.