Welcome to Organic Chemistry 234!. How Should I Study?. Do not memorize everything! Practice writing mechanisms and “talking” yourself through the steps. Learn to ask the right questions. Form a small study group (2-3 people). Work as many problems as you can.
Welcome to Organic Chemistry 234!
Methotrexate, Anticancer Drug
5-Fluorouracil, Colon Cancer Drug
Tamiflu, Influenza Drug
AZT, HIV Drug
Viagra, TreatsErectile Dysfunction
Note: Sections 1.1 and 1.2 on the structure of an atom can be reviewed in the textbook.
end and a slight negative charge on the other
(e) : magnitude of the charge on the atom
(d) : distance between the two charges
A Polar Bond Has a Dipole Moment
dipole moment (D) = m = e x d
The vector sum of the magnitude and the direction of the individual
bond dipole determines the overall dipole moment of a molecule
Carbon has four valence electrons
Hydrogen has one valence electron and halogen has
Nitric Oxide Radical,
Mammalian Signaling Agent
where an electron is most likely to be found
The s Orbitals
The p Orbitals
overlap forms an antibonding MO:
Sigma bond (s) is formed by end-on overlap of two
A s bond is stronger than a p bond
Pi bond (p) is formed by sideways overlap of two parallel
Hybridization of One s and Three p Orbitals
Ka: The acid dissociation constant.
The stronger the acid, the larger its Ka value and the smaller its pKa value.
An amine can behave as an acid or as a base strong acids
The Structure of an Acid Affects Its Acidity strong acids
size overrides electronegativity
Substituents Affect the Strength of an Acid strong acids
Acetic acid is more acidic than ethanol strong acids
The delocalized electrons in acetic acid are shared by
more than two atoms, thereby stabilizing the conjugated
3. Hybridization strong acids
4. Inductive effect
5. Electron delocalization strong acids
Lewis Acids and Bases strong acids