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Rotter and Mischel. Chapter 12. Outline. Biography of Rotter Predicting Specific Behaviors Predicting General Behaviors Maladaptive Behavior Psychotherapy. Cont’d. Outline. Biography of Mischel Background of the Cognitive-Affective Personality System

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outline
Outline
  • Biography of Rotter
  • Predicting Specific Behaviors
  • Predicting General Behaviors
  • Maladaptive Behavior
  • Psychotherapy

Cont’d

outline1
Outline
  • Biography of Mischel
  • Background of the Cognitive-Affective Personality System
  • Cognitive-Affective Personality System
  • Related Research
  • Critique of Cognitive Social Learning Theory
  • Concept of Humanity
biography of rotter
Biography of Rotter
  • Born in Brooklyn in 1916
  • In high school, he became familiar with the writings of Freud and Adler
  • In 1941, received a Ph.D in clinical psychology from Indiana University
  • Moved to the University of Connecticut in 1963 and has remained there since his retirement
predicting specific behaviors
Predicting Specific Behaviors
  • Behavior Potential
  • Expectancy
  • Reinforcement Value
  • Psychological Situation
  • Basic Predicting Formula
predicting general behaviors
Predicting General Behaviors
  • Generalized Expectancies
  • Needs
    • Categories of needs
    • Need components
  • General Prediction Formula
  • Internal and External Control of Reinforcement
  • Interpersonal Trust Scale
maladaptive behavior
Maladaptive Behavior
  • Rotter defined maladaptive behavior as any persistent behavior that fails to move a person closer to a desired goal
  • It is usually the result of unrealistically high goals in combination with low ability to achieve them
psychotherapy
Psychotherapy
  • Changing Goals
    • The role of the therapist
      • Help patients understand the faulty nature of their goals
      • Teach them ways to strive toward realistic goals
  • Eliminating Low Expectancies
biography of mischel
Biography of Mischel
  • Born in Vienna in 1930
  • Second son of upper-middle-class parents
  • When the Nazis invaded Austria in 1938, his family left for the U.S.
  • Received his Ph.D from Ohio State University where he worked under Rotter
  • Has taught at Colorado, Harvard, Stanford, and Columbia, where he remains as an active researcher
background of the cognitive affective personality system
Background of the Cognitive-Affective Personality System
  • Consistency Paradox
    • Although both laypeople and professionals tend to believe that behavior is quite consistent, research suggests that it is not
  • Person-Situation Interaction
    • Mischel believes that behavior is best predicted from an understanding of the person, thesituation, and theinteraction between person and situation
cognitive affective personality system
Cognitive-Affective Personality System
  • Behavior Prediction
    • Individuals should behave differently as situations vary
  • Situation Variables
    • All those stimuli that people attend to in a given situation
  • Cognitive-Affective Units
    • Encoding strategies
    • Competencies and self-regulatory strategies
    • Expectancies and beliefs
    • Goals and values
    • Affective Responses
related research
Related Research
  • Locus of Control and Health-Related Behaviors
    • Smoking (Bunch & Schneider, 1991; Norman, 1995)
    • Alcohol abuse (Jih, Sirgo, & Thomure, 1995)
    • Unwise eating (Ludtke & Schneider, 1996)
critique of social learning theory
Critique of Social Learning Theory
  • High on Generating Research, Internal Consistency, Parsimony, and Ability to Organize Knowledge
  • Average on its ability to Guide Action and to be Falsified
concept of humanity
Concept of Humanity
  • Free Choice over Determinism
  • Teleology over Causality
  • Conscious over Unconscious
  • Culture over Biology
  • Uniqueness over Similarity
  • Rotter\'s view is slightly more optimistic whereas Mischel\'s is about in the middle