C2 self synchronisation and swarming
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C2 Self-Synchronisation and Swarming. J Miles June 2008. Contents. Discussion regarding alternative forms of synchronisation Characteristics of swarming Historical examples of swarming behaviour

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C2 Self-Synchronisation and Swarming

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C2 self synchronisation and swarming

C2 Self-Synchronisation and Swarming

J Miles

June 2008


Contents

Contents

  • Discussion regarding alternative forms of synchronisation

  • Characteristics of swarming

  • Historical examples of swarming behaviour

  • The appropriateness of self-synchronisation and swarming behaviour in the context of the maritime environment


Alternative forms of synchronisation

Alternative forms of synchronisation

  • Hierarchical

  • Mutual

  • Self

or

or

or


C2 self synchronisation and swarming

Key

Key

Info Pull

Info Pull

Feedback

Feedback

b

b

Synchronising

Synchronising

activity

activity

Higher

c

c

c

Authority

Entity status

Entity status

Entity status

Entity status

supervision

supervision

Higher

a

a

Authority

Entity status

Entity status

Entity status

Entity X

Entity X

Entity X

Entity Y

Entity Y

Entity Y

Entity Y

Entity Y

Entity Y

Entity Y

Entity Y

Synchronisation point

Synchronisation point

Synchronisation point

Synchronisation point

Synchronisation point

Synchronisation point

Synchronisation point

Synchronisation point


C2 self synchronisation and swarming

Higher

Higher

Authority

Authority

2

1

Mutual Synchronisation

Mutual Synchronisation

Higher

Higher

Higher

Higher

Authority

Authority

Authority

Authority

Entity status

Entity status

Entity status

Entity status

Entity status

Entity status

Entity status

Entity status

Entity Y

Entity Y

Entity X

Entity X

Entity X

Entity X

Entity Y

Entity Y

Synchronisation point

Synchronisation point

Synchronisation point

Synchronisation point


C2 self synchronisation and swarming

+

+

Control

Control

-

-

Hierarchical

Hierarchical

Hierarchical

Self

Self

Self

Swarming

Swarming

Swarming

Uncoordinated

Uncoordinated

Uncoordinated

Mutual

Mutual

Mutual

-

-

-

peer

peer

peer

Chaos

Chaos

synchronisation

synchronisation

synchronisation

synchronisation

synchronisation

synchronisation

behaviour

behaviour

behaviour

activity

activity

activity

synchronisation

synchronisation

synchronisation

Synchronisation process

Synchronisation process

+

+

Coordination

Coordination

Direct

Direct

Indirect

Indirect

-

-

Hierarchical

Hierarchical

Hierarchical

Self

Self

Self

Swarming

Swarming

Swarming

Uncoordinated

Uncoordinated

Uncoordinated

Mutual

Mutual

Mutual

-

-

-

peer

peer

peer

Chaos

Chaos

synchronisation

synchronisation

synchronisation

synchronisation

synchronisation

synchronisation

behaviour

behaviour

behaviour

activity

activity

activity

synchronisation

synchronisation

synchronisation

Synchronisation process

Synchronisation process


Swarming

Swarming

  • An extreme form of self-synchronisation

  • "The systematic pulsing of force and / or fire by dispersed networked units, so as to strike the adversary from all directions simultaneously.” 1

  • The 'emergence' of macro-behaviour - based on the totality of self-synchronised micro-behaviour.

    1 (Arquilla, Ronfeldt, Swarming and the future of conflict, RAND Corporation 2000)


Swarming characteristics

Swarming Characteristics

  • A number (usually many) of low-level components with specialised functions;

  • multistability – flexible agile capability through clustering of function;

  • Bifurcation – rapid change of function

  • Coordination achieved through indirect interaction – very localised SA;

  • Survival of the collective takes precedence over individual components.


Military swarming

Military swarming

  • Massed Swarm, implies a convergent attack as a primary manoeuvre

    • Convergent attack

      • Encircling and surrounding an adversary

      • cuts off the adversary’s lines of supply

      • destroys morale

      • prevents any possible retreat


Examples of swarming behaviour

Examples of swarming behaviour

  • Battle of the Atlantic – U Boat “Wolf Pack” operations (1939–1945)

  • RN Coastal Defence Force (1939-45)

  • Battle of the Pacific, kamikaze air attacks (1944-45)

  • FIAC swarms (present day)

  • Other applications e.g. social swarming


Appropriateness of swarming behaviour in military operations

Appropriateness of swarming behaviour in Military Operations

  • behaviour cannot be controlled, only influenced through prior communication of Command Intent and ROE.

  • non-linear process – very short-term prediction of behaviour

  • Large numbers of platforms


C2 self synchronisation and swarming

1

1

2

2

50m

50m

36

36

2m

2m

Etc.

Etc.

300m

300m


Constraints

Constraints

  • Small platforms not “ocean-going”

  • Transport assistance from larger platforms

  • Sustainment requirements:

    • sufficient crew numbers for the force to operate 24/7;

    • Maintenance 24/7;

    • Therefore difficult to achieve sufficient numbers of maritime swarm components in the zone of operations


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Much NCW / NEC literature / discussion is phrased as though this is a blank canvas and self-synchronisation is a new concept. This is not the case.

  • The swarming concept needs to accept :

    • large numbers of units

    • less direct control of the self-synchronising / swarming force

    • less detailed plans

    • self-synchronising / swarming SA is different from conventional SA

  • difficult to see how a future maritime force could apply offensive swarming in expeditionary operations

  • if maritime aircraft and UXVs were to be included in the force then the potential for swarming operations increases.


Questions

Questions


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