Mutations. Mutation. Changes in sequences (DNA or RNA) Can be caused by an outside factor ( , , or chemicals ) or inside factors (during , replication , or synthesis )
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Frameshiftmutation – caused be or by a number of nucleotides not evenly by three. Due to the nature of codons, this type of mutation can disrupt the during protein (affects the amino acids to be incorporated into the polypeptide chain)
Nonsensemutation – point mutation that can cause a stop codon in the mRNA. This will result in the early of the chain.
Missensemutation – single mutation causes an amino acid to change in the chain. This change results in the change of the protein function due to the of the mutant amino acid (active site)
Silentmutation – mutations that do not result in the of the amino acid of the protein.