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LANGUAGE. Chapter 6 Lecture Continued. What Are Languages, and What Role Do Languages Play in Culture?. Language : A set of sounds, combinations of sounds, and symbols used for communication Standard language : A language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught

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Language

LANGUAGE

Chapter 6 Lecture Continued


What are languages and what role do languages play in culture
What Are Languages, and What Role Do Languages Play in Culture?

  • Language: A set of sounds, combinations of sounds, and symbols used for communication

  • Standard language: A language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught

  • Role of government in standardizing a language


Example gov t forced assimilation
Example: Gov Culture? ’t-forced assimilation



Example dialect
Example: Dialect Culture?

  • African American Vernacular English (AAVE)

    • Aka “Ebonics”

  • Standard American English





Language formation
Language Formation Culture?

  • Sound shifts, slight changes in a word across languages over time

    Milk = lacte in Latin leche in Spanish

    lait in French latta in Italian

  • Language divergence: Breakup of a language into dialects and then new languages from lack of interaction among speakers

  • Language convergence: When peoples with different languages have consistent interaction and their languages blend into one


Historical linkages among languages
Historical Linkages among Languages Culture?

  • Proto-Indo-European

  • (proto = first; original)


The languages of europe
The Languages of Europe Culture?

  • Romance languages

    • French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese

  • Germanic languages

    • English, German, Danish, Swedish

  • Slavic languages

    • Russian, Polish, Czech


The case of euskera
The Case of Euskera Culture?

Spoken by the Basque and in no way related to any other language family in Europe


Languages of subsaharan africa
Languages of Subsaharan Africa Culture?

  • Dominant language family: Niger-Congo


Nigeria
Nigeria Culture?


How do languages diffuse
How Do Languages Diffuse? Culture?

  • Human interaction

  • Print distribution

  • Migration

  • Trade

  • Rise of nation-states

  • Colonialism

Elizabeth J. Leppman


Effects of spatial interaction
Effects of Spatial Interaction Culture?

  • Lingua franca: A language used among speakers of different languages for trade and commerce

  • Pidgin language: A language created when people combine parts of two or more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary

  • Creole language: A pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people

    • Haitian creole, Jamaican patois


What role does language play in making places
What Role Does Language Play in Making Places? Culture?

  • Place: The uniqueness of a location, what people do in a location, what they create, how they impart a certain character, a certain imprint on the location

  • Toponym: A place name

    • Imparts a certain character on a place

    • Reflects the social processes in a place

    • Can give a glimpse of the history of a place


Example
EXAMPLE Culture?

  • Town with the longest name in the world is in Wales (UK)

  • Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwlllla-ntysiliogogogoch

  • Translation:"Saint Mary's Church in the hollow of white hazel near a rapid whirlpool and the Church of Saint Tysilio near the red cave."


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