西方文明史
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西方文明史. 第 三 講: 希臘. 劉 慧  教授. 【 本著作除另有註明外,採取 創用 CC 「姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享 」 臺 灣 3.0 版 授權釋出 】. The Earliest Civilizations of Europe; Greek Civilization. The Good Life Minoan period 2000-1500-1400 BCE Mycenaean period 1600-1200 The Greek Dark Ages 1150-800 The Greek Archaic Age 800-480

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西方文明史

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西方文明史

第三講: 希臘

劉 慧  教授

【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用CC「姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣3.0版授權釋出】


The earliest civilizations of europe greek civilization

The Earliest Civilizations of Europe; Greek Civilization

The Good Life

Minoan period 2000-1500-1400 BCEMycenaean period 1600-1200

The Greek Dark Ages 1150-800

The Greek Archaic Age 800-480

Greek colonization

Athenian Democracy

The Persian Wars 490, 480-79

The Classical Age 480-338 BCE

2


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1. Minoan andMycenaeanCivilizations

  • Rediscovered in the 19th c

    • Heinrich Schliemann: inspired by the Iliad

      • 1870 Troy; 1876 Mycenae

    • Arthur Evans: looking for king Minos of Crete

      • 1899 Knossos

  • Influence on later classical Greek culture?

  • How similar to neighbouring areas?


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  • Mycenaean Civilization

  • 1600-1200 BCE

  • Trading relations

  • City-states: Mycenae, Pylos, Tiryns.

  • Bureaucracy

  • Heavily fortified hilltop forts

  • Linear B 1500-1400

    • Mycenaeans ruled Crete

  • 1250 Trojan war

  • 1150-800 the Dorians ruled Greece

  • Minoan Civilization

  • 2000-1500-1400 BCE

  • Writing not yet deciphered

  • City-states: Knossos, Kato Zakros

  • Bureaucracy

  • No protective walls


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Society

  • Mycenaean Civilization

  • Ostentatious royal graves

    • Inlaid bronze daggers

  • Minoan Civilization

  • Prosperity and equality

    • Flush-toilet, swimming pool, parquet floors in the palace

    • Dwellings in the poorest quarters were well built and spacious

    • Women could participate in public activities and enter into many occupations (bullfighters, boxers)

  • Recreations

    • Dancing, running races, boxing

    • Stone theaters


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Art

  • Minoan Civilization

  • A people dedicated to elegance

  • Painting

    • Fresco

    • Delight in the beauty of the natural world

    • Delicacy, spontaneity and naturalism

    • Joie de vivre

  • Sculpture

    • Smaller than life-size

  • Household objects

  • Mycenaean Civilization

  • Not as elegant, delicate or graceful – stiffer, more symmetrical

  • Inlaid daggers were original

  • Little direct influence on later Greece

    • Homer entirely forgot the bureaucracy: destruction by the Dorians = a blessing in disguise?

  • Art; devotion to comfort, love of amusement:

    • different from Mesopotamia (and from Egypt to a lesser degree)


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2. The Greek Dark Ages 1150-800

  • Written records disappeared

  • Political patterns

    • Autonomous villages; village leader commanded local army (and worked on land); village assembly = informal gatherings of warriors; no formal legal institutions

  • Social and economic life

    • No trading, little specialization

  • Inferences drawn from the Iliad and the Odyssey

    • Evolved from oral traditions during this period

  • 9th century developments:

    • Learned from the Phoenicians: the alphabet and seafaring

    • Reinvent urbanism: the polis (pl. poleis)


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  • Religion

    • Polytheistic system for 1) explaining the workings of the physical world

      • Myth of Persephone, Hades and Demeter

    • and 2) obtaining earthly benefits

      • Gods behaved like humans and needed to be placated. sacrifices and prayers

    • No professional priesthood; Greek temples were places where gods reside temporarily

  • Fate after death

    • Shades in Hades gradually faded away

  • Life was for living for its own sake; glory resided in practicing human virtues

    • Bravery, wisdom (cunning), service to family and community

  • Humanism


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3. Archaic Greece (800-480 BCE)

  • Writing and trade

  • Village → town (hilltop fortification with marketplaces) → (population growth) city, polis

    • City + surrounding countryside and villages. Kinship

  • Colonization

    • Early 8th c: commercial; c.735-600: farming

    • Each colony was an independent foundation, with emotional ties only to its ‘metropolis’

  • Forms of government

    • General assembly, executive counciland magistrates

    • Oligarchy. Tyranny. Democracy


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Athens

  • Probably in the 8thc, Athens and Attica were united into a city-state: sunoikismos

  • Political changes in reaction to social and military changes

    • Oligarchy

      • Hereditary aristocracy based on family ties

      • 594- based on income

    • Tyranny

      • Peisistratus (546-527)

    • Democracy

      • Cleisthenes 508


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Athens: Social changes

  • Conflict between various groups of aristocracy;

  • between coastal and mountain areas;

  • between rich and poor

    • Owner farmers

    • hektemorioi or tenant farmers paying 1/6 of their produce to the landowner

    • debt slavery


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Athens: Military innovation


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Athens: Oligarchy

  • Draco, 621BCE – stern ‘draconian’ punishment for criminal acts – restoring order by LAW

  • Solon, 594 BCE was granted emergency powers to forestall class warfare – restoring order by CONSTITUTION

    • Economic/Social

      • Cancelled debts; loans could not be secured on the person

      • Olive oil and wine, but not wheat, were allowed to be exported; encouraged ceramic industry

    • Political

      • Classified the citizenry into 4 grades in terms of wealth (500/300/200 bushels p.a. of produce)

      • Archonship open to men of 1st and 2nd ranks

      • A Council of 400 to be drawn from the top 3 ranks

    • Legal – ended Draco's laws

      • A popular Council of Appeal: all citizens were included as jurors


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Athens: Tyranny

  • In the short term Solon failed – in 546 Peisistratus established a tyranny

    • Tyrants: a member of the elite obtained support from the larger population. Unconstitutional.

    • State loans. Paid out of a 10% tax on all produce

    • Poetry, arts, building projects, popular festivals

  • 527-510: Peisistratus was succeeded by his son Hippias, who was later overthrown


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Athens: Democracy

  • Sudden change from one-man rule

  • In 507 Cleisthenes defeated rivals with help from the lower classes, ‘father of Athenian DEMOCRACY’

    • Ephialtes (461 BCE), Pericles (443-429 BCE) etc; navy (483-)

    • Sovereign power resided in the Assembly (ekklesia)

      • Council (boule) of 500; standing committee (prytaneis)

      • 100 magistrates

      • 6000 citizens acting as both jurymen and judges (dikastes) a year

      • 9 Archons; Council of Aeropagus - ex archons


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  • Use of lot

  • Set up 30 regions and 10 new ‘tribes’ for nominating councilors and magistrates; every free man participated in regional selection process

    • Selection was based on geography rather than on family connections

    • Decision-making was based on argument and debate, rather than local/kinship ties and custom

  • Citizens were paid for attending meeting and holding office

  • Ostracism - honourable exile to forestall the rise of tyrant

  • The system matured by 487; worked well for a century

    • Strict majority rule


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    • Women, foreign residents and slaves were excluded

    • Otherwise fully participatory:

      • Everyone could, should, and had the right to participate in public affairs

      • Making the right decision for the common good did not require specialist expertise

      • Everyone had the ability to chose for themselves

      • A high regard for the dignity and worth of the individual

    • The danger of unreflective emotionalism


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    The Persian Wars 490, 480-479

    • Herodotus (485-425)

    • Cyrus the Great (559-529): extended his rule to Asia Minor

    • Ionian revolt 499-494

    • Darius I: Battle of Marathon 490

    • Themistocles built a fleet 483

    • Xerxes: Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis 480, battle of Plataea 479

    • Greek myths about the event

      • The 300 at Thermopylae in 480

      • struggle for liberty against despotism

    • Confidence


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    Persia, 559-331 BCE

    • Cyrus 559-529

    • Cambyses 529-522

    • Darius I the Great 521-486

    • Xerxes 485-465

    • Medes, Lydia, Babylon, Egypt

    • Satrapy, satrap

    • Vassal states: local religious and legal institutions remained

    • Standardized currency, weights and measures; roads, ‘postal system’

    • Allowed conquered peoples considerable self-determination; title: King of Kings, (instead of ‘True King’)

    • Universalism, eclecticism

    • Governmental instability by 4th c BCE

    • The Parthian dynasty in Iran from ca. 238 BCE


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