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西方文明史

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西方文明史. 第 三 講: 希臘. 劉 慧  教授. 【 本著作除另有註明外,採取 創用 CC 「姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享 」 臺 灣 3.0 版 授權釋出 】. The Earliest Civilizations of Europe; Greek Civilization. The Good Life Minoan period 2000-1500-1400 BCE Mycenaean period 1600-1200 The Greek Dark Ages 1150-800 The Greek Archaic Age 800-480

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西方文明史

第三講: 希臘

劉 慧  教授

【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用CC「姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣3.0版授權釋出】

the earliest civilizations of europe greek civilization

The Earliest Civilizations of Europe; Greek Civilization

The Good Life

Minoan period 2000-1500-1400 BCEMycenaean period 1600-1200

The Greek Dark Ages 1150-800

The Greek Archaic Age 800-480

Greek colonization

Athenian Democracy

The Persian Wars 490, 480-79

The Classical Age 480-338 BCE

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slide3

1. Minoan andMycenaeanCivilizations

  • Rediscovered in the 19th c
    • Heinrich Schliemann: inspired by the Iliad
      • 1870 Troy; 1876 Mycenae
    • Arthur Evans: looking for king Minos of Crete
      • 1899 Knossos
  • Influence on later classical Greek culture?
  • How similar to neighbouring areas?
slide4

Mycenaean Civilization

  • 1600-1200 BCE
  • Trading relations
  • City-states: Mycenae, Pylos, Tiryns.
  • Bureaucracy
  • Heavily fortified hilltop forts
  • Linear B 1500-1400
    • Mycenaeans ruled Crete
  • 1250 Trojan war
  • 1150-800 the Dorians ruled Greece
  • Minoan Civilization
  • 2000-1500-1400 BCE
  • Writing not yet deciphered
  • City-states: Knossos, Kato Zakros
  • Bureaucracy
  • No protective walls
slide5

Society

  • Mycenaean Civilization
  • Ostentatious royal graves
    • Inlaid bronze daggers
  • Minoan Civilization
  • Prosperity and equality
    • Flush-toilet, swimming pool, parquet floors in the palace
    • Dwellings in the poorest quarters were well built and spacious
    • Women could participate in public activities and enter into many occupations (bullfighters, boxers)
  • Recreations
    • Dancing, running races, boxing
    • Stone theaters
slide7

Art

  • Minoan Civilization
  • A people dedicated to elegance
  • Painting
    • Fresco
    • Delight in the beauty of the natural world
    • Delicacy, spontaneity and naturalism
    • Joie de vivre
  • Sculpture
    • Smaller than life-size
  • Household objects
  • Mycenaean Civilization
  • Not as elegant, delicate or graceful – stiffer, more symmetrical
  • Inlaid daggers were original
  • Little direct influence on later Greece
    • Homer entirely forgot the bureaucracy: destruction by the Dorians = a blessing in disguise?
  • Art; devotion to comfort, love of amusement:
    • different from Mesopotamia (and from Egypt to a lesser degree)
slide9

2. The Greek Dark Ages 1150-800

  • Written records disappeared
  • Political patterns
    • Autonomous villages; village leader commanded local army (and worked on land); village assembly = informal gatherings of warriors; no formal legal institutions
  • Social and economic life
    • No trading, little specialization
  • Inferences drawn from the Iliad and the Odyssey
    • Evolved from oral traditions during this period
  • 9th century developments:
    • Learned from the Phoenicians: the alphabet and seafaring
    • Reinvent urbanism: the polis (pl. poleis)
slide10

Religion

    • Polytheistic system for 1) explaining the workings of the physical world
      • Myth of Persephone, Hades and Demeter
    • and 2) obtaining earthly benefits
      • Gods behaved like humans and needed to be placated. sacrifices and prayers
    • No professional priesthood; Greek temples were places where gods reside temporarily
  • Fate after death
    • Shades in Hades gradually faded away
  • Life was for living for its own sake; glory resided in practicing human virtues
    • Bravery, wisdom (cunning), service to family and community
  • Humanism
slide11

3. Archaic Greece (800-480 BCE)

  • Writing and trade
  • Village → town (hilltop fortification with marketplaces) → (population growth) city, polis
    • City + surrounding countryside and villages. Kinship
  • Colonization
    • Early 8th c: commercial; c.735-600: farming
    • Each colony was an independent foundation, with emotional ties only to its ‘metropolis’
  • Forms of government
    • General assembly, executive counciland magistrates
    • Oligarchy. Tyranny. Democracy
slide12

Athens

  • Probably in the 8thc, Athens and Attica were united into a city-state: sunoikismos
  • Political changes in reaction to social and military changes
    • Oligarchy
      • Hereditary aristocracy based on family ties
      • 594- based on income
    • Tyranny
      • Peisistratus (546-527)
    • Democracy
      • Cleisthenes 508
slide13

Athens: Social changes

  • Conflict between various groups of aristocracy;
  • between coastal and mountain areas;
  • between rich and poor
    • Owner farmers
    • hektemorioi or tenant farmers paying 1/6 of their produce to the landowner
    • debt slavery
slide15

Athens: Oligarchy

  • Draco, 621BCE – stern ‘draconian’ punishment for criminal acts – restoring order by LAW
  • Solon, 594 BCE was granted emergency powers to forestall class warfare – restoring order by CONSTITUTION
    • Economic/Social
      • Cancelled debts; loans could not be secured on the person
      • Olive oil and wine, but not wheat, were allowed to be exported; encouraged ceramic industry
    • Political
      • Classified the citizenry into 4 grades in terms of wealth (500/300/200 bushels p.a. of produce)
      • Archonship open to men of 1st and 2nd ranks
      • A Council of 400 to be drawn from the top 3 ranks
    • Legal – ended Draco\'s laws
      • A popular Council of Appeal: all citizens were included as jurors
slide16

Athens: Tyranny

  • In the short term Solon failed – in 546 Peisistratus established a tyranny
    • Tyrants: a member of the elite obtained support from the larger population. Unconstitutional.
    • State loans. Paid out of a 10% tax on all produce
    • Poetry, arts, building projects, popular festivals
  • 527-510: Peisistratus was succeeded by his son Hippias, who was later overthrown
slide17

Athens: Democracy

  • Sudden change from one-man rule
  • In 507 Cleisthenes defeated rivals with help from the lower classes, ‘father of Athenian DEMOCRACY’
    • Ephialtes (461 BCE), Pericles (443-429 BCE) etc; navy (483-)
    • Sovereign power resided in the Assembly (ekklesia)
      • Council (boule) of 500; standing committee (prytaneis)
      • 100 magistrates
      • 6000 citizens acting as both jurymen and judges (dikastes) a year
      • 9 Archons; Council of Aeropagus - ex archons
slide18

Use of lot

    • Set up 30 regions and 10 new ‘tribes’ for nominating councilors and magistrates; every free man participated in regional selection process
      • Selection was based on geography rather than on family connections
      • Decision-making was based on argument and debate, rather than local/kinship ties and custom
    • Citizens were paid for attending meeting and holding office
    • Ostracism - honourable exile to forestall the rise of tyrant
  • The system matured by 487; worked well for a century
    • Strict majority rule
slide19

Women, foreign residents and slaves were excluded

  • Otherwise fully participatory:
    • Everyone could, should, and had the right to participate in public affairs
    • Making the right decision for the common good did not require specialist expertise
    • Everyone had the ability to chose for themselves
    • A high regard for the dignity and worth of the individual
  • The danger of unreflective emotionalism
slide22

The Persian Wars 490, 480-479

  • Herodotus (485-425)
  • Cyrus the Great (559-529): extended his rule to Asia Minor
  • Ionian revolt 499-494
  • Darius I: Battle of Marathon 490
  • Themistocles built a fleet 483
  • Xerxes: Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis 480, battle of Plataea 479
  • Greek myths about the event
    • The 300 at Thermopylae in 480
    • struggle for liberty against despotism
  • Confidence
slide23

Persia, 559-331 BCE

  • Cyrus 559-529
  • Cambyses 529-522
  • Darius I the Great 521-486
  • Xerxes 485-465
  • Medes, Lydia, Babylon, Egypt
  • Satrapy, satrap
  • Vassal states: local religious and legal institutions remained
  • Standardized currency, weights and measures; roads, ‘postal system’
  • Allowed conquered peoples considerable self-determination; title: King of Kings, (instead of ‘True King’)
  • Universalism, eclecticism
  • Governmental instability by 4th c BCE
  • The Parthian dynasty in Iran from ca. 238 BCE
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