53:071 Hydraulics and Hydrology Project #1 Pelton Turbine

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53:071 Hydraulics and Hydrology Project #1 Pelton Turbine. Marian Muste, Gokhan Kirkil and George Constantinescu. Problem Statement. A children’s museum in Colorado has purchased a small Pelton turbine for its new display on renewable energy. Problem Statement.

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### 53:071 Hydraulics and HydrologyProject #1Pelton Turbine

Marian Muste, Gokhan Kirkil

and George Constantinescu

Problem Statement
• A children’s museum in Colorado has purchased a small Pelton turbine for its new display on renewable energy.
Problem Statement
• The museum wishes to operate the turbine (with available flows) and sell the power on the open market.
• You have been hired as a consultant to the museum.
Project Objectives

1.Using the measurements of relevant hydraulic and electrical variables for various loads in the power grid of the hydroelectric power system, determine energy conversion efficiency (hydraulic, electric and total).

2.Determine energy (kWh) that can be generated from the laboratory-scale Pelton turbine, and the revenue it can generate (\$/year) for the museum.

Site Information
• The effective head (pressure) for operations at the site is about 51.5 psi (Havailable).
• Variations in the forebay elevation are assumed to be minor.
Operational Information
• The museum will operate the turbine 7 days a week (9 am to 4 pm).
• The museum has secured water rights to divert flows from the South Platte River. The allotted diversion depends on the average monthly flow rate in the river.
Laboratory Component
• Determine the energy conversion efficiency (hydraulic and/or electrical and total) of the laboratory-scale Pelton turbine for the proposed operating conditions (Havailable, Q) under different loads (constant rotational speed) or under different rotational speeds (constant discharge).
• The project is designed to allow documenting the efficiency of the energy conversion in a hydropower plant.
Engineering Analysis Components
• Compute the energy produced (kWh/yr) if operated as planned.
• Estimate the revenue that can be generated if the energy is sold on the open market (\$/year).
Principle

Centrifugal turbine:

high speed jet hits the blades of the

turbine and as a result of momentum

transfer the turbine shaft rotates with a certain frequency

A- Electrical

F-

Generator Voltage (volts)

H- Generator Switch

C- Turbine Torque

(lb-in)

D- Turbine Speed (rpm)

E- Generator Speed (Hz)

G- Generator Current (amps)

K- Hydraulic Break

J- Discharge controlling valve

Laboratory Apparatus
Laboratory Objective 1
• Determine energy conversion efficiency (hydraulic, electric and total) for the laboratory-scale Pelton turbine for various loads in the system (10 bulbs) under constant rotational speed.
Laboratory ProceduresPart-1-Electrical generation part
• TA sets the discharge and initial measuring speed with the brake off.
• Turn on the generator switch and bring generator to 60Hz using the input flow valve.
• Apply the first electrical load to generator. As power line frequency drops, in order to maintain 60 Hz open input valve slowly.
• Measure the rotational speed (rpm) of the shaft (N), residual torque (T) (lb-in), voltage (V) (volts) and the current (I) (amps).
• Measure the head on the weir (H1) and record the reference point (H0). This is needed to measure the discharge
• Repeat steps 3-5 as second, third and fourth loads are added to the system.
Data Analysis-1
• Determine the discharge using a triangular weir formula

Q=2.49(H1-H0)2.48.

• Determine Pavail, Phydr, Pelec (lbf-ft/sec) for four different loads in the systems.
• Determine ηhydr, ηelec, ηtotal.
Laboratory Objective 2
• Determine energy conversion efficiency (hydraulic) curves of the turbine for 2 operational discharges.
Laboratory ProceduresPart-2 Determine hydraulic efficiency curve for the turbine
• TA sets the first discharge and initial measuring speed with the brake off.
• Tighten the friction hand-wheel (this reduces the rotational speed) and record the torque and rotational speed.
• Repeat Step 2 with ∆N ≈ 50-100 rpm until the rotational speed reaches about 500 rpm
• Measure the head on the weir (H1) and record the reference point (H0)
• TA adjusts to a lower discharge. Read the new initial rotational speed with the brake off.
• Repeat Steps 2 to 5
• Plot hydraulic efficiency vs. rotational speed for the two discharges
Data Analysis-2
• Determine the discharge using Q=2.49(H1-H0)2.48.
• Determine the hydraulic efficiency of the turbine.
• Plot the rotational speed vs. the hydraulic efficiency of the turbine for two discharges.
Project Report
• Provide the client (the museum director) with a concise report that answers the project objectives
• Consultation with Center for Technical Communication (CTC) is mandatory for this project (you should show proof that you consulted with CTC when you submit the report).