Business English and Its Translation
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Business English and Its Translation. A COURSE SUMMARY. Laura SISU. 主要内容. 1 第一讲 商务英语文体风格和语言特点 2 第二讲 商务英语翻译标准 3 第三讲 商务英语词语的翻译 (1) 4 第四讲 商务英语词语的翻译 (2) 5 第五讲 商务英语词语的翻译 (3) 6 第六讲 商务英语词语的翻译 (4) 7 第七讲 商务英语词语的翻译 (5) 8 第八讲 商务英语句子的翻译 (1). 主要内容: 张新红 《 商务英语翻译 》. 考试形式:闭卷. 100 分

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Laura sisu

Business English and Its Translation

A COURSE SUMMARY

Laura SISU


Laura sisu

主要内容

  • 1第一讲 商务英语文体风格和语言特点

  • 2第二讲 商务英语翻译标准

  • 3第三讲 商务英语词语的翻译 (1)

  • 4第四讲 商务英语词语的翻译 (2)

  • 5第五讲 商务英语词语的翻译(3)

  • 6第六讲 商务英语词语的翻译(4)

  • 7第七讲 商务英语词语的翻译(5)

  • 8第八讲 商务英语句子的翻译(1)


Laura sisu

主要内容: 张新红《商务英语翻译》


Laura sisu

考试形式:闭卷

100分

  • 商务词汇互译 15*2=30%

    • 15 汉译英

    • 15英译汉

  • 商务句子翻译 (英译汉) 15*4=60%

    • 15个句子

  • 简答题 2*5 %


Laura sisu

第一讲 商务英语文体风格和语言特点


Technical commercial terms for clarity

Technical /commercial Terms for Clarity

Abbreviations

Business terminology

CIF

Cost , Insurance and Freight到岸价格

O/C

Outward Collection

出口托收

B/D

Bank Draft

银行汇票

CPI

Consumer Price Index

C/A

Current Account

往来账

TPND

Theft Pilferage and Non-Delivery

盗窃和提货不着险

Laura SISU


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EXX

Anti-dumping measures

Quota-free products

非配额产品

Counter-offer

还盘

Bid bond

投标保证金

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EXX

Kitty

凑集的资金 共同资金

Kite

空头支票

Negotiable

可兑现的(支票等)

Raider

企图收购者 (证券交易)

honor

承兑(票据) (银行业)

Average

海损 海损费用

Offer

要约

Offerer

要约人

Offeree

受要约人

Accept

承诺

Acceptor

承诺人

Acceptee

接受承诺人

Laura SISU


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EXX

an outstanding cheque

futures /drugs/buy

force Majeure

draft at sight

Bill of lading

documents against acceptance

Bill of exchange

Offer

a firm offer

counter offer

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EXX

Drugs: Unmarketable (unsalable, poor-selling) products; stickers

This type of fixture went out of style and is now a drug on the market.

Laura SISU


Technical terms

Technical terms

default terms/value

judgment by default

Laura SISU


Linguistic feature conversational

Linguistic feature (conversational)

With reference to your request for an extension on your note under date of February 7,we have considered the matter carefully and are pleased to tell you that we will be willing to allow you an additional 90 days to make payment on your note.

We are pleased to allow you an additional 90 days to pay your note dated February 7.

Laura SISU


No vague language

no vague language

Literal words instead of figurative words are widely used in Business English.

We are delighted to receive your letter of November 18 asking whether we can supply you with Art. No 6024.

很高兴收到你方案11月18 日来函,询问我方可否供应6024货号商品.

The period for shipment begins on April 1 and ends October 20 (both dates inclusive).

从四月一日起到十月二十日止这一其间交货.

Laura SISU


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EXX

We are in receipt of –-- we have received

Compare:

Please be advised that we have received your invoice No.248.

Your invoice No.248 has been received.

贵方248号发票已收到

SISU


Objective and impersonal

Objective and impersonal

Expository writing

A contract shall be an agreement whereby the parties establish ,change or terminate their civil relationship.

。efinition)

Business is a combination of all these activities:production.distribution and sale,through which profit or economic surplus will be created.

商务是指生产、配送、销售等一切活动的组合,通过这些活动,创造利润和经济盈余。(definition)

SISU


4 objective and impersonal

4.Objective and impersonal

Generally speaking, telegrams can be divided into two kinds: Plain Language Telegrams and Code Language Telegrams.

一般而言,电报可分为两种:明语电报和电码电报。(classification)

This contract is made out in duplicate in Chinese and in English Language ,one Chinese original copy and one English original copy for each party, both text being equally authentic.

本合同用中文和英文书就,一式二份,双方各执一份中文正本和一份英文正本。两种文本具有同等效力。(illustration)


5 principle governed sentences loaded with clear and rich information for efficient communication

5. Principle-governed sentences loaded with clear and rich information for efficient communication

All offers by telex are open for 7 days.

所有电传开盘七天内有效。

Please rush your L/C so that the shipment may not be delayed.

请速开证,以免耽误装运。

Laura SISU


More passive sentences for objectivity and clarity

More passive sentences for objectivity and clarity

Documents must be presented not later than the expiry date of the credit.

An expiry date stipulated for payment, acceptance or negotiation will be construed to express an expiry date for presentation of documents.

L


More passive examples

More Passive Examples

This matter should be taken up with the insurance company.

这件事情应向保险公司提出。

Anti-dumping is widely being made use of in some countries.

某些国家在滥用反倾销措施。

Laura SISU


Laura sisu

随函附上发票和提单。

We are enclosing the invoice and the bill of lading.

根据贵方5月6日来函,我方乐意订购下列货物。

With reference/ Regarding/In reply to /Referring to your letter of May 6,we are pleased to give an order for the following goods.

Laura SISU


You attitude vs we attitude

You-attitude vs We-attitude

Business

Acommercial text must be sincere, tactful, thoughtful and appreciative, avoiding irritating, offensive and belittling statement (the use of euphemism). p.50

We allow a 5% discount for cash payments. (“we”—attitude ) 付现款,我们给5%的折扣。

You earn a 5% discount when you pay cash. (“you”—attitude) 你付现款,可赚5%的折扣。

Laura SISU


Other polite formula

Other polite formula:

a. Use of simple past tense such as “could /would/you…?I wondered…”

e.g. Could you reduce the price?

您可以把价格降一降吗?

b. Use of passive voice

It was considered a mistake to put off shipment wantonly.

任意拖延装运时间是错误的。

c. Use of subjunctive mood

Were it not for your manage ,we shouldn’t have missed the first vessel.

要不是你们经理,我们不会错过第一条船的。

d. Use of “not always/ quite / really/ particularly …”

The question was not always with you.

你不会总碰到这种问题的。

Laura SISU


Words of the day

Words of the day

Translation risk

Translation risks should be taken into account when you negotiate payment terms in international trade.

做国际贸易谈判付款条件时要考虑换汇风险。

The greater the proportion of asset and liability denominated in a foreign currency, the greater the translation risk.

外汇业务中,所显示的资产和负债的比例越高,换汇风险越高

Laura SISU


Laura sisu

Lecture 2. Criteria & Techniques for business English translation


Criteria

Criteria

  • loyal

  • Idiomatic/readable

  • consistent


Faithful to information

Faithful to Information

  • B should send A detailed information of guests (date of arrival, number of rooms needed, nights) ten days prior to the arrival.

  • 乙方应提前10天向甲方确报散客的详细信息(抵达日期(即入住日期)、房数及天数。


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EXX

  • Party A shall pay Party B a monthly salary of US$500 (SAY FIVE HUNDRED US DOLLARS ONLY).

  • 甲方须每月付给一方500美元元整。


Note conversion

不动产

?unmovable property

fixed assets

温饱

?to have warmth and food

to make both ends meet

休息室

? rest-room/rest room/resting place

lobby/lounge

试衣间

?clothes trial room

dressing room/fitting /change room

自动门

?self-turning door

Automatic (revolving/swinging) door

营业时间

?Operation Time

Business Hours/Open Hours

Note conversion


Laura sisu

EXX

  • 从4月1日起到10月20日止这一其间内交货.

  • ?Time of delivery begins on April 1 and ends on October 20.

  • Time of delivery begins on April 1 and ends on October 20,both dates inclusive.

  • 乙方没有按合同规定及时把货备妥,致使甲方派去装货的船只滞期48小时.

  • ?Party B failed to get the goods ready for loading in accordance with the time of shipment as stipulated in the Contract. Therefore it resulted in time delay for the vessel sent by Party A for 48 hours.

  • Party B’s failure to get the goods ready for loading in accordance with the time of shipment as stipulated in the Contract has resulted in time on demurrage for the vessel sent by Party A for 48 hours


Idiomaticity

Idiomaticity

He bent solely upon profit.

  • 他只屈身于利润之前。

  • 只有利润才能使他低头。

  • 他唯利是图。


Laura sisu

EXX

  • We wish to cover the goods against All Risks.

  • 我们希望货物能避免所有风险.

  • 我们拟对该货投保全险.

  • We are able to quote you very advantageous terms.

  • 我们能够引用你方非常有利的条件.

  • 我们能够向你方报相当优惠的价格.

  • Most little shops have been absorbed into big business.

  • 大多数小店已被大企业吸收了.

  • 大多数小店已被并入大公司


3 consistency

3.Consistency

By consistency we also mean, if possible, keeping the same structural forms in translation so as to achieve coherence of the text.

  • As we begin a new era in McDonald’s, it is important that we define our vision for the future … where we are heading … what we plan to achieve … and how we will get there together.

  • 当我们开创麦当劳公司新纪元之际,重要的是要描绘我们未来的发展前景,诸如我们的前进方向,规划取得何种成就,如何共同达到这一目标等等。


Exercises

Exercises

Loyalty (accuracy)

  • This contract is made in two originals in both English and Chinese,each party holding one.In case of any discrepancy between the two versions,the Chinese version shall prevail.

    以中文本为准

  • 本合同以中英文同时书就,一式两份,双方各执一份。两种文本如有歧意,以中文本为准。


Loyalty

loyalty

  • The Buyer shall make a claim against the Seller (including replacement of the goods) by further inspection certificate and all the expenses incurred therefrom shall be borne by the Seller.

  • 如果买方向卖方提出索赔( 包括换货),并出具相应的检验证明,卖方将支付全部费用。

  • 买方须凭复检证明书向卖方提出索赔(包括换货),由此引发的全部费用应由卖方承担。


Laura sisu

EXX

  • The date of receipt issued by the transportation department concerned shall be regarded as the date of the delivery of goods.

  • 由有关的运输机构所开具收据的日期即被视为交货日期。

  • 由承运的运输机构所开具收据的日期即被视为交货日期。


Idiomaticity1

Idiomaticity

  • The arbitral award is final and binding upon both parties.

  • 仲裁机构的裁决具有最终效力,双方必须遵照执行。

  • 仲裁裁决是终局裁决,对双方均具有约束力。


2 general introduction to techniques for biz translation

2.General Introduction to Techniques for Biz Translation

  • Direct method

  • Indirect method

  • Complete equivalence

  • Partial equivalence

  • Merging

  • Splitting

  • Conversion


Example

Example

  • As a result, goods circulate more widely and at lower prices, jobs are created, and wealth is spread. Though people may act from the narrow desire to enrich themselves, “an invisible hand” guides them to enrich and improve all of society.

  • Direct: 结果,商品更广泛地流通,价格低廉,工作被创造出来,财富被扩散。尽管人们可以从狭窄的欲望出发,使自己富有,‘一个无形之手’指导它们致富并改进社会。

  • Indirect:结果,商品价格更为低廉、流通更为广泛,就业机会增加,人们的财富也随之增加。尽管人们可能会从狭义的欲望出发去发家致富,但‘一种无形之手’却能引导他们去繁荣整个社会、去促进整个社会的进步。


Complete equivalence

Complete equivalence

专有名词、专业术语等

不涉及到一词多义的问题,所以比较好处理,

  • National Bank of Pakistan

  • 巴基斯坦国民银行

  • European Economic Community (EEC)

  • 欧洲经济共同体(欧共体)

  • Organization of Petroleum Exerting Countries (OPEC)

  • 石油输出国组织(欧佩克)

  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

  • 亚太经济合作组织(亚太经合组织)


Partial equivalence

Partial equivalence

遇到多义词时,要根据它在上下文的意思去确定它的哪一种词义同汉语(中文)相对应,或者接近之后,才能决定取舍

  • Who has torn the cover of my book?

  • (封面)

  • We are today forwarding you 01/1“new test key under separate cover.

  • (信封)

  • The cover of the above-mentioned draft was remitted to you on the date of issue through the Chartered Bank London.

  • (头寸)


Laura sisu

More

  • Designated forex banks dealt on the inter-bank market according to the turnover position limit on banking exchange stipulated by SAFE and covered the position on the market.

  • 外汇指定银行根据国家外汇管理局核对的银行结售汇周转头寸限额到银行间市场进行外汇买卖,平补结售汇头寸。

  • in an easy position (tight position)

  • 头寸宽裕(头寸紧缺)


Laura sisu

发放贷款

  • Make/issue/launch

    放贷款可译作

  • to launch a loan

  • to launch a movement,campaign,drive

  • 搞运动、活动

  • to launch a training program,class,course

  • 举办培训班

  • to launch a satellite

  • 发射卫星


Splitting

Splitting

  • The certificates (FRCD--floating rate certificate of deposit), which are fully negotiable, constitute unsecured obligations of the issuing bank and rank pari passu with all other deposits of the bank.

  • pari passu adv. at an equal pace; side by side:

  • 以同样速度,不分先后

  • 浮动利率存单完全可以流通。这就使发行银行承担了未获担保而支付的义务。此种存单与银行的其他存款具有同样的地位。(三句)


Splitting1

Splitting

  • The documentary credit offersa unique and universally used method of achieving a commercially acceptable compromise by providing for payment to be made against documents that represent the goods and make possible the transfer of rights to those goods.

  • 跟单信用证提供了一种独特的、全世界都采用的方法,即凭代表货物的单据付款,从而使货权的转移成为可能。这是一种商业上可以接受的折衷方式。


Amplification

Amplification

  • “hot” money

  • 游资(热钱)指获取高利或保障币值而由一国转移到另一国的流动资金

  • Here the exporter's assets (the money due from the overseas buyer) will always match his liability (his foreign currency borrowings).

  • 这样,出口商的资产(应收海外买方的款项)和自己的债务(海外借款)之间总是(保持)平衡的

  • (用相等、相似、相配、相当于都不合适)


Explanation

Explanation

  • …And for good reason:Lenders worry that they'll be throwing money down a black hole..…其原因很清楚,放款者担心他们的钱会扔进一个无底洞。

    Good 引申为“很清楚”、“很简单”或“只有一个”

    black hole

    “黑洞

    “石沉大海”

    肉包子打狗 有去无回

    “无底洞”


Laura sisu

EXX

  • Some analysts suggest that this is because of the lack of competition, others that it's because merchant banking is still something of a new novelty in Jakarta, and still others that it is because business in most sectors of the Indonesian economy is booming.

  • 有的分析家认为,这是因为缺乏竞争,有的认为这是因为在雅加达商人银行业还是一种新生事物,还有认为印度尼西亚大部分经济领域的生意都很兴隆。


Words of the day1

Words of the day

Fresh money

  • These investors show no interest in putting fresh money into the market.

  • 这个投资者根本没有兴趣向市场追加资本。

  • Fresh money is opposed to old money.

  • 追加资本与原有资本相对。


Hands on homework

Hands-on homework


Laura sisu

Lecture 3 Lexical Choice in English-Chinese Translation for International Business (1)

Laura SISU


Laura sisu

p77

  • Advertisers must realize that people usually are motivated by the goal of satisfying some combination of two or more needs, and the needs may be both conscious and unconscious.

  • T:广告人必须明白,通常能够满足两个或者更多需要的综合目标才能促使人们购买 ,而且这些需要既可能是有意识的 ,又可能是无意识的.

  • 改1: 广告商须知 ,人们在实现能满足两个以上综合需求的 目标时才会激起消费欲,这些消费需求既可以是有计划的 ,也可以是没有计划的。

  • 改2: 广告商须知 ,如能满足人们两个以上的综合需求,才会激起其消费欲 ,这些消费需求既可以是有计划的 ,也可以是没有计划的。


Laura sisu

p89

  • In a turnkey project, the seller plans, constructs, and places in operation a foreign facility that is then transferred to a local owner.

  • T: 在由承包商完全承包的工程中,卖主计划 、建造并将一套国外设施投人运作,然后将其转让给地方雇主 。

  • 改: 在统包式项目中,卖方负责规划、建造一套国外进口设施并使其投人运行后 交付给当地的买主。


Laura sisu

Note

  • A turnkey project

  • 统包式工程/项目;交钥匙工程项目

  • Places in operation

  • 将上述设施“投人运行 ”

  • Transfer :转交给

  • 统工程的付款方式都有约定 ,工程完工了再作“转让”不符合一般的操作规范

  • A local owner

  • 买方/买主


Laura sisu

p20

  • A foreign business representative, neither overly sympathetic toward China nor overly disposed against it, would need to be convinced on a number of scores before he could responsibly commit his firm to taking an equity position in a Chinese enterprise.

  • T: 一个对中国既无过度好感又无过度恶感的企业代表,在代表公司在华投资、与一定中国企业形成平等股权关系之前 ,必须考虑许多因素。

  • 改:一个对华采取中立态度的(或译既不十分支持中国 ,也不极力反对中国的)外国企业代表 ,需要考虑诸多因素方可代表其公司在中国的某企业获得股权地位。


Laura sisu

p24

  • You cannot build a ship, a bridge or a house if you don’t know to make a design or how to read it.

  • T:不会制图或看不懂图纸 ,就不可能造船 、架桥或盖房子。

  • 改:如果你不会设计或看不懂设计图纸 ,你就无法造船 、架桥 、盖房子 。


Laura sisu

p42

  • To avert the danger of major defaults and to restore security to the economic systems, Western bankers and governments will have to ensure that they are imposing reasonable repayment terms on developing countries, terms that will not provoke revolution or chaos.

  • T:为了防止发生重大宣布无力偿还债务事件,并使经济体制恢复巩固,西方各国金融机构和政府必须确保对各发展中国家强制实行公平合理的还 债 条 件,确保这些条件不至于引发革命或混乱。

  • 为了防止发生重大债务危机,并为经济体制提供安全保障,西方各国金融机构和政府必须确保对各发展中国家强制实行公平合理的还债条件,确保这些条件不至于引发革命或混乱。


Default

default

  • 不履行,违约,拖欠;不出场;不参加;不到案;弃权

  • Let's both try not to default on our commitments.

  • 让我们双方一起努力,不违反自己的承诺。

  • The player defaulted in the tournament because of her injury.

  • 在这次循环赛中,这位运动员由于受伤而弃权。


Laura sisu

p50

  • A more realistic approach toward international specialization is that of comparative advantage. this concept says that a nation has a comparative advantage in an item if it can produce it more efficiently that alternative products.

  • T:参与国际分工的另一更为现实的做法是采取比较优势的做法。比较优势是指假如一个国家生产某种产品比生产其他产品的效率高 ,那么它就具有生产该产品的比较优势。

  • 改:实现国际专业化生产的一个更为现实的途径是“相对优势” ,这个理念是指某个国家生产某种产品比生产其它产品效率高,那么该国就具有生产此产品的相对优势。


Laura sisu

p52

  • As each currency's value is stated of other currencies, French francs, then , have a value in US dollars, which have a value in British pounds, which have a value in Japanese yen.

  • T: 由于每一种货币的价值是用另外的货币表现出来的,那么法国法郎的价值可以用美元来体现 ,美元可以用英镑来体现 ,英镑可以用日元来体现。

  • 改:由于每一种币值可以折换成其它币值,所以,法国法郎具有美元的币值 ,美元具有英镑的币值 ,英镑具有日元的币值。


Laura sisu

p60

  • In the station, a telephone began to ring. The ringing was loud, evenly spaced and unanswered.

  • T:车站里有一部电话的铃声响了起来。声音很大 ,节奏均匀 ,没有人接。

  • 改: 车站里 ,有部电话铃声大作 ,间隔均匀 ,但无人接听。


Laura sisu

p64

  • International trade occurs when a country does not have enough of a particular item to meet its needs.

  • T: 当一个国家没有足够的某一特定商品来满足自身需求时 ,就需要有国家贸易。

  • 改: 当一个国家的某种产品没有足够的量来满足本国需求时 ,国际贸易便应运而生了。


Laura sisu

p75

  • A firm’s involvement in exporting products can range from a minimal commitment all the way to considering exports as necessary for the firm’s survival and growth.

  • T:公司在产品出口中参与情况的程度不一,从最低程度的参与一直到将出口视为公司生存和发展必要条件的参与都会存在。

  • 改:公司在出口产品中参与程度迥异,从最小的出口量直到视出口量为公司生存与发展 的必要条件。


Pp41 42

pp41-42

  • When mineral oil is refined into petrol, it is used to drive internal combustion engine. To it we owe the existence of the motor-car, which has replaced the private carriage drawn by the horse.

  • T:当矿物油被提炼成汽油之后 ,就可以用来驱动内燃机。就是有了这种油,我们才能用上汽车 ,以代替私人马车。

  • 改:矿物油精炼成汽油后可用来驱动内燃机。正是有了汽油 ,我们才用上了汽车 ,取代了私家马车。


Laura sisu

p.60

  • The voyage was a smooth one. The wind is favorable and the weather fair.

  • T:一路上非常顺利 ,风是顺风 ,天气是晴好的天气。

  • 改:天气晴好 ,风助船行 ,航程顺利。


Laura sisu

p66

  • International business as a field of management trainingdeals with the special features of business activities that cross national boundaries.

  • T:作为管理训练一个领域的国际商务具有跨国家边界商务活动的专门特征。

  • 改:作为管理培训的一个学科 ,国际商务研究讨论跨国界商务活动的特征 。


Laura sisu

p108

  • Unemployment in America (as of mid-1990) was running near 5.25 percent. That is somewhat higher than used to be considered full employment, but it is not a serious figure in the aggregate.

  • T:1990年年中美国的失业率近5.25% 。按以往的标准,这个比例偏高,没有达到充分就业 。但就整体来说问题并不严重 。

  • 改:1990年年中美国的失业率接近5.25% 。与以往完全就业的标准相比 ,这个比例略微偏高。但总的来说这个比例并不严重 。


Textbook

Textbook

Chapter 3


Floating exchange

floating exchange浮<流>动外汇

  • A problem with long-term controversy in economics is: whether fixed exchange rate is better than floatingexchange rate?

  • 经济学中长期争论的一个问题是:固定汇率是否优于浮动汇率?


Floating policy

floating policy

  • 流动保险单,总额保险单 ,统保单

  • Floating policy is of at importance for export trade.

  • 统保单对出口贸易至关重要


Sympathetic 93 underwriter

Sympathetic (93)/underwriter

  • 保险商, 承诺支付者, 承购人 ,核保人

  • Usually we receive a handsome premium rebate from our underwriter at regular interval.

  • 通常,我们可定期从保险商那里拿到一笔可观的保险费回扣。

  • Insurance Underwriter

  • 保险承销商

  • Mortgage Underwriter

  • 抵押保险员


Word of the day

Word of the day

  • Underwriter

  • Underwriter/insurer/assurer

  • 保险商:underwriter/insurer

  • Insurer: most commonly used

  • Underwriter:特指进行保险风险和资产评估、签订保险合同的人,即保险业务受理人。

  • Assurer:可用来指进行保险公司或者个人dance 特指人寿保险商


Laura sisu

e.g.

  • 保险商已经估算了风险。

  • The underwriter has calculated the risk.

  • 如轿车被偷,保险公司就要赔一笔赔偿金。

  • If the car is stolen, the insurer will pay a sum of money.

  • 这家人寿保险公司同意赔付10万美元的保险赔偿金。

  • This life assurer agrees to pay US$ 100,000 in insurance.


Laura sisu

  • Lecture 4 Lexical Problems

  • in English-Chinese Translation for International Business

  • Addition & Omission

Laura SISU


Repetition

Repetition

P.14 (Textbook)

  • Marketing occurs when people decide to satisfy needs and wants through exchange.

  • 当人们开始通过交换满足欲望和需求的时候 就出现了营销.

  • 当人们开始通过交换来满足各种需求的时候, 就出现了营销。


Repetition1

Repetition

p88

  • Business is a combination of all these activities: production, distribution and sale, through which profit or economic surplus will be created.

  • 译文:商务指生产、分配、销售等一切活动的组合,通过它们利润和经济盈余将被创造。

  • 教材:商务是指生产、分配、销售等一切活动的组合,通过这些活动能创造利润和经济盈余。?

  • 改译:商务是指生产、分配、销售、并创造利润的一系列相关活动。


Idiomatic

Idiomatic

P22

  • Shipping details, including whether transshipments are allowed. Also recorded should be the latest date for shipment and the names of the ports of shipment and discharge.

  • 教材:装船细节, 包括是否允许转运以及装船的最后日期和装船 、卸货的港口名称。

  • 改:装运细节:包括是否允许转运。还须记录装船的最后日期及装货港、卸货港的名称。


Idiomatic1

Idiomatic

P22

In may be in the best interest of the exporter for shipment to be allowed “from any UK port", so that he has a choice if, for example, some ports are affected by strikes. The same applies for the port of discharge.

  • 教材:就出口商而言 ,如能任选英国的任何港口装船最有利。如发生罢工等情况下,他有选择港口的余地 。对卸货港口亦然 。

  • 对出口商来说 ,允许在“英国的任何港口装船”最为有利。比如,一旦罢工波及某些港口而影响装货,他就可以选择其他港口。这同样适用于卸货港。


Plural words

Plural words

P39.

Cargo insurance is to protect the trader from losses that many dangers may cause.

  • 教材:货物保险会使贸易商免受许多风险所 可能造成的种种损失。

  • 修改:货物保险可以保护商人免遭各种危险可能造成的经济损失。


Laura sisu

商务英语中,一些名词的复数形式通常用来表示“量 ”


Laura sisu

e.g.

  • The losses are computed at $1,000.

  • 估计损失额为1000美元。


Laura sisu

p39

  • Another factor behind the increase in merger activity is the record performance of stock markets, which has enabled companies to finance major acquisitions on the strength of their inflated share prices.

  • 教材:导致合并不断增加的另一个因素是股票市场的空前繁荣 。股票市场的空前繁荣使得各家公司可以依赖其上涨的股票价格去资助各种大规模的购进 。

  • Improved:使公司购并增长的另一个原因是股票市场的空前繁荣。许多上市公司可以用股价上涨获得的资金为大的购并项目提供金融保障。


Laura sisu

p196

  • In the event the Buyer does not furnish the seller with shipping instructions on or before August 17,1987, the seller may at his option cancel this contract and demand the Buyer to pay any damages he has sustained on account of such failure of the Buyer to give such instructions.

  • 教材: 如买方在 1987年 8月17日或在此之前未向卖方发出装运通知 ,则卖方可自行决定取消本合同,并要求买方赔偿因未发出装运通知而使其蒙受的一切损失。

  • Improved:如买方在 1987年 8月17日之前(含17日)未向卖方发出装运通知 ,则卖方可自行决定取消本合同,并要求买方赔偿因未发出装运通知而使其蒙受的一切经济损失。


Repetition lexical choice p91

Repetition & Lexical choice P91

Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed, but today it has a more technical definition, which is the production, distribution, and sale of goods and service for a profit.

T: 传统上,商务仅指人们所需要的物品的交换或贸易。但是 ,今天商务有更为科学的定义 ,它是指为了利润而进行货物和劳务的生产 、配送和销售的一种活动。

Improved: 传统意义上的商务是指人们为了获得所需求的物品而进行的交易活动。但是现在商务有了更为科学的定义:它指为了获取利润而进行的商品的生产、配送和销售活动,包括提供的服务业务。


Laura sisu

e.g.

  • We provide a number of financial services.

  • 我们提供多种金融服务。


Business expertise p64

Business expertise (p64)

  • All services in business----such as gift wrapping delivery, and credit----have some amount of costs associated with them, and these costs much be covered by higher prices.

  • T: 商业中所有的服务—诸如礼品包装 、送货以及赊账—都有相应的成本 ,而这些成本 要靠较高的价格来弥补。

  • Improved: 商务活动中的所有服务,诸如礼品包装送货和赊购等都有其相应的成本,而这些成本必须通过提高价格得到补偿。


Cover

cover

  • She had enough funds to cover her check.

  • 她有足够的资金支付 自己的账单。

  • The policy covers fire and theft risks.

  • 此保单承保火灾险和失窃险。


Business knowledge p96

Business knowledge (p96)

  • Buyers or their chartering agent shall advise the Seller by fax 10 days prior to the arrival of the contract number, name of the carrying vessel, approximate loading capacity, lay days and port of loading.

  • 教材:买方或其租船代理人须于载货轮抵达装运港 天前以传真方式通知卖方合同号 、船名 、大约受载重量 、预计抵达日期及装运港名。

  • 修改:买方或其船代须于承运船抵达装货港前10天将合同号 、承运船名 、近似载重量 、在港时间和装货港以传真的方式告知卖方。


More to say

More to say

  • I know much about lay days, but less about ladies.

  • Demurrage

  • 滞期费

  • Dead Freight

  • 空舱费


Laura sisu

p98

  • Should for certain reasons the Buyers not be able to inform the Seller of the foregoing details 10 days prior to the vessel at the port of loading or should the carrying vessel be advanced or delayed, the Buyer or their chartering agent shall advise the Sellers immediately and make necessary arrangement.

  • T:若买方由于某种原因不能于装运轮抵达装运港10前将上述详细情况通知卖方 ,或装运轮提前或推迟抵达 ,买方或其运输代理人须立即通知卖方并做出必要的安排。

  • 改: 如果买方由于种种原因不能于承运船抵达装货港 天前将上述细节告知卖方 ,或如果承运船提前或推迟抵港 ,买方或其船代须立 即通知卖方并做出妥善安排。


Laura sisu

p92

  • The Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) aims to achieve a situation where foreign investors are not discriminated against, but they are still subject to the same substantive laws and regulations that apply to domestic investors.

  • T:多边投资协定的目标是要达到这样一种境界—外国投资者不受歧视 ,但他们仍和国内投资者一样要接受同样的基本法规的管制。

  • 改: 多边投资协定旨在达到下列的境界:外国投资者不受歧视,但必须遵守现行适用于本国投资者的各项法律法规。


Be subject to

Be subject to

  • The above offer is made without engagement and all order will be subject to our written acceptance.  

  • 以上报盘为虚盘(无约束力), 所有订货将以我方书面接受为准。


Laura sisu

p109

  • There is a tendency for an organization of this type to be rather romantic; this place isn’t romantic---- it actually makes money. he is impressed equally by the open information policy, which circulates details of all meetings to employees, and the rapid growth.

  • 改译 这种类型的公司常常具有浮而不实的倾向,而这家公司并非如此—实际上 ,这家公司确实赢利了。公司的信息公开政策以及迅速成长的态势在相同程度上给他以深刻的印象。信息公开政策是指所有会议的具体内容都传达到全体员工 。


Textbook1

Textbook

Chapter 4 Addition & Omission


Laura sisu

Lecture 5 Translation of Plurals In Business English

Chapter 5


Amount gu 2010 refer to lecture 4

Amount –Gu,2010(refer to lecture 4)


Laura sisu

e.g.

  • 必须通过国际黄金储备大量输入英国来达到收支平衡。黄金大量流入英国自动地减少了外币的供应量,增加了英国货币的供应,结果造成外国贷价下跌,而英国贷价上涨。


Laura sisu

e.g.

  • Eventually, reserve movements stop and both countries reach balance of payments equilibrium.


Laura sisu

e.g.


Laura sisu

e.g.

  • Government interference with private gold exports also undermined the system.

  • 政府对私自出口黄金采取干预措施也破坏了这一体系。

  • Exports: 出口量


2 singular vs plural different

2. Singular vs. Plural (different)


Proceeds

Proceeds

  • Corporations may purchase “key executive” insurance covering certain corporate officers. The proceeds from this insurance help offset the loss of the services of these key people if they die or become incapacitated.

  • 公司可能购买承保某些公司要员的“核心管理者”保险,由此类保险而获得的资金可以弥补这些要员死亡或者能力丧失造成的损失费用。


Proceeds1

Proceeds

  • He sold his house and lives on the proceeds.

  • 他卖掉了房子,靠房款收入为生。


Proceeds2

Proceeds

  • Upon receipt of compliant documents, we undertake to remit proceeds by telegraphic transfer in terms of your instructions.

  • 一俟收到相符的单证,我(开证行)保证按贵行指令电汇货款。

  • Remit proceeds

  • 汇出货款。


Collections

Collections

collection 托收 collections 收取款项、收款额

  • We are sending our draft through the Bank of China (for) documentary collection.

  • 我们把汇票交由中国银行跟单托收。

  • The total collections today amount to $78990.

  • 今天收款总额为78990.


Damages

damages

  • They claim damages of $700 for the loss sustained.

  • 对所受损失,他们索赔700美元的损害赔偿费。

  • They found difficult in meeting the engagements.

  • 他们发现还债有困难。


More examples in textbooks

More examples in textbooks

Lecture 4 (review)


Prices p39

Prices (p39)

Another factor behind the increase in merger activity is the record performance of stock markets, which has enabled companies to finance major acquisitions on the strength of their inflated share prices.

教材:导致合并不断增加的另一个因素是股票市场的空前繁荣 。股票市场的空前繁荣使得各家公司可以依赖其上涨的股票价格去资助各种大规模的购进 。

Improved:使公司购并增长的另一个原因是股票市场的空前繁荣。许多上市公司可以用股价上涨获得的资金为大的购并项目提供金融保障。


Losses dangers p39

losses & dangers (p39)

P39.

Cargo insurance is to protect the trader from losses that many dangers may cause.

教材:货物保险会使贸易商免受许多风险所 可能造成的种种损失。

修改:货物保险可以保护商人免遭各种危险可能造成的经济损失。


Losses

losses

  • Governments effectively suspended the gold standard during WWI and financed part of their massive military expenditures by printing money. Moreover, labor forces and productive capacity had been reduced sharply through war losses.


Losses and expenditures

Losses and expenditures

  • Losses—非商务英语。 (战争中人员的)伤亡

  • Expenditures: (军费)开支额


3 sum of money

3.sum of money


3 sum of money1

3.sum of money


Payment payments

Payment & payments

  • Payment:支付、付款(不可数)

  • Payments:支付的款项

  • Payment will be made upon receipt of the goods with a discount of 5% for cash payment.

  • 收货付款,现金支付95折。

  • You agree to repay this loan by 10 weekly payments of $10.

  • 你同意每周支付10美金,10周还清贷款。


Laura sisu

e.g.

  • In this case, foreigners’ net imports from Britain are not being financed entirely by British loans.

  • 即然这样,外国人从英国的净进口就不可能全部用英国的贷款来支付。

  • Buyers must be responsible for all movements of the goods from inland point of loading, and pay all transportation costs.

  • 买方应负责将货物从内陆装货地开始的所有运输活动,并支付一切运输费用。


4 bonds stocks securities

4 Bonds, stocks & securities


Bonds bunds

Bonds & bunds

  • Bond (可数): 债券

  • Bonds (不可数):不记名债券

  • Debenture : 公司债券,债券;信用债券;(海关)退税凭单

  • Industrials:工业股票或者债券

  • Irredeemable:不赎回债券,无偿还债券


5 repetition of plural nouns

5.Repetition of plural nouns


6 adj n amount

6.adj->n: amount


6 adj n amount1

6.adj->n: amount

  • Outstanding 未付清的 已发行的

  • Outstandings 未偿付的贷款 未清算的项目 股东持有的股票

  • Valuable 有价值的 贵重的

  • Valuables 贵重物品


7 others

7. Others (平时积累)


Task iii

Task III

Chapter 5: Repetition (p45-53)


Problematical translations in this chapter lecture 3 p50

Problematical translations in this chapter (Lecture 3) p50

A more realistic approach toward international specialization is that of comparative advantage. this concept says that a nation has a comparative advantage in an item if it can produce it more efficiently that alternative products.

T:参与国际分工的另一更为现实的做法是采取比较优势的做法。比较优势是指假如一个国家生产某种产品比生产其他产品的效率高 ,那么它就具有生产该产品的比较优势。

改:实现国际专业化生产的一个更为现实的途径是“相对优势”,这个理念是指某个国家生产某种产品比生产其它产品效率高,那么该国就具有生产此产品的相对优势。


Laura sisu

p52

As each currency's value is stated of other currencies, French francs, then , have a value in US dollars, which have a value in British pounds, which have a value in Japanese yen.

T: 由于每一种货币的价值是用另外的货币表现出来的,那么法国法郎的价值可以用美元来体现 ,美元可以用英镑来体现 ,英镑可以用日元来体现。

改:由于每一种币值可以折换成其它币值,所以,法国法郎具有美元的币值 ,美元具有英镑的币值 ,英镑具有日元的币值。


Words of the day2

Words of the day

  • longs and shorts

  • Long-dated securities vs. short-dated securities

  • 长期证券和短期证券


Laura sisu

Lecture 6

Conversion

Laura SISU


Peculiarities of biz english review

Peculiarities of Biz English (Review)

Practicability/实用性

Expertise/专业性

Target/目的性

Timeliness/时代性

Polysemy/多义性

Conciseness/简洁性


Peculiarities expertise

Peculiarities: Expertise

coverage

保险项目

stand-by credit

备用信用证/备用信贷

clearance sale

清仓销售价

blank endorsement

空白背书

bill of lading

提单

establishment

开证

letter of guarantee

银行保函

arbitration

仲裁

mortgage

抵押

shipping marks

唛头


Shipping marks

SHIPPING MARKS

S/M (shipping marks)

装船标记, 唛头

也叫"唛",是货物包装的重要组成部分,是运输包装件上的图形、文字、数字、字母的总称。主要作用是货物在装卸、运输、仓储过程中容易识别,以防错发错运,也是商检、海关查检、监管的依据,此外还是商品身份的证明。主要内容有主标志、件号、批号、重量标志、体积标志、原产国标志、警告标志等等。


Shipping marks1

shippingmarks

I suppose we also get the supplier to pack the goods for export and stencil shippingmarks for us.

Stencil:用模板写

大概还得让供货商把货物按出口要求包装好,代我们唰上装船唛头吧!


Laura sisu

EXX

Under the long draft, the bearer shall present it to the payer for acceptance before the date of maturity.

如为远期汇票,持票人应在汇票到期前付款提示承兑.

The finish is not good and the enamel has cracked in some places.

光洁度不佳,有几处搪瓷破裂。


Peculiarities timeliness

Peculiarities: Timeliness

cyber cash

电子货币

virtual store

虚拟商店

information super- highway

信息高速公路

paperless office

无纸化办公

soho(small office,

home office )

开领

venture capital

风险投资

China- Asean Free Trade Area

中国东盟自由贸易区

ASEAN

abbr. 东盟(=Association of Southeast Asian Nations)

electronic ticket

电子机票

online publishing

网上出版


Peculiarities polysemy

Peculiarities: Polysemy

If a particular cargo is partially damaged, the damage is called particular average.

如果某批货物部分受损,我们称之为单独海损。

It s obvious that the products are below the average quality.

很明显,这批产品的品质是中下水平。

This freight must be carefully handled when loading.

这种货物装载时应小心搬运 。

The ocean freight is calculated by weight not by measurement.

此项海运运费是按重量,而不是按尺码来计。


Peculiarities conciseness

Peculiarities: Conciseness

PLS QUOTE LOWEST AND SOONEST 300 WOMENS MSIZE RAINCOATS CIF HONGKONG.

中号女士雨衣 300 件,请报香港到岸最低价和最早装船期。

PLS(please)

MSIZE (mild size)

CIF (cost insurance freight )


Initials

Initials:

OPEC

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

石油输出国组织

EEC

European Economic Community

欧洲经济共同体

COD

Cash On Delivery

交货付款

POD

Port of Destination

目的港

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

关贸总协定


Clipped words

Clipped words

sec

Secretary

memo

memorandum

kilo

Kilogram

cig

cigarette

biz

ad


Blending

Blending

Agritainment agri-tourism

农家乐

Camcorder

摄像机(camera照相机+recorder录像)

Autome

流动住宅车(automobile 汽车 +home住宅

motel

汽车旅馆(motor汽车 +hotel 旅馆)

videophone

电视电话(video视频 +telephone 电话)

Medicare

医疗服务(medical医疗 +care护理)


Laura sisu

EX

For the time being , therefore, we regret our inability to accept D/A terms in all transactions with our buyers abroad.

因此, 我们很抱歉,时下与国外客户的一切交易中, 还无法接受以承兑交单的方式付款。

承兑交单

documentary against acceptance


Laura sisu

V-N

The volume of trade has increased tremendously to the advantage of both countries.

贸易量巨大增加, 这给两国都带来了益处。

We thank you for your enquiry about the textiles transmitted by your letter of Feb 8.

承蒙贵公司 2 月8 日来函询问有关纺织品的事项, 谨表谢意。


Adj n

Adj--N

The bill of lading is to be made out to order and blank endorsed.

该提单应做成空白抬头和空白背书。

The new contract would be good for ten years.

新的合同的有效期为10 年。


Adj v

Adj.V

We hope that you will take your commercial reputation into account seriously and open the L/ C at once; otherwise you will be responsible for all the losses arising as a result of your failure to do so.

我方期望你方会认真考虑商业信誉并立即开出信用证, 否则, 由此造成的损失将由你方负责。


Adj adv

Adj-adv

We tender our apologies for not having replied in due time to your letter of March 1.

3 月 1 日来信未能及时回复, 特致歉意。

In consideration of the friendly relations between us, we are, as an exceptional case, prepared to accept payment for your trial order on D/ P basis.

考虑到彼此的友好关系, 对你方这批试购的货物我们准备破例接受付款交单的方式付款。


Adv n

Adv-n.

Specialization enables one country to produce some goods more cheaply than another country.

专业化能使一个国家生产的产品比别的国家生产的便宜。


Adv adj

Adv.-adj.

KFC’ s claims, somewhat improbably, that the recent fears over carcinogenic Sudan dyes have not affected sales in China at all.

肯德基声称最近对苏丹红成分的恐慌并未影响其在中国的销售。这种说法似乎不大可能。


Task iii chapter 6

Task III Chapter 6

Conversion (pp54-61)


Task iv words of day

Task IV Words of day

Particular average vs. general average


Laura sisu

海损:海运保险术语

Particular average

指保险标的物在海上遭受承保范围内的风险所造成的部分灭失或损害,即指除共同海损以外的部分损失。这种损失只能由标的物所有人单独负担。

General average

载货船舶在海运上遇难时,船方为了共同安全,以使同一航程中的船货脱离危险,有意而合理地作出的牺牲或引起的特殊费用,这些损失和费用被称为共同海损。


Laura sisu

Lecture 7

Extension and Amplification   

(Lexical choice 5—chapter 7/8/9)

Laura SISU


Chapter 7 extension amplification

Chapter 7 Extension & amplification


P62 74

P62-74

Textbook-related


P64 lecture 3

p64 (lecture 3)

  • All services in business----such as gift wrapping delivery, and credit----have some amount of costs associated with them, and these costs much be covered by higher prices.

  • T: 商业中所有的服务—诸如礼品包装 、送货以及赊账—都有相应的成本 ,而这些成本 要靠较高的价格来弥补。

  • Improved: 商务活动中的所有服务,诸如礼品包装送货和赊购等都有其相应的成本,而这些成本必须通过提高价格得到补偿。


P64 lecture 31

p64 (lecture 3)

  • International trade occurs when a country does not have enough of a particular item to meet its needs.

  • T: 当一个国家没有足够的某一特定商品来满足自身需求时 ,就需要有国家贸易。

  • 改: 当一个国家的某种产品没有足够的量来满足本国需求时 ,国际贸易便应运而生了。


P66 lecture 3

p66 (lecture 3)

  • International business as a field of management trainingdeals with the special features of business activities that cross national boundaries.

  • T:作为管理训练一个领域的国际商务具有跨国家边界商务活动的专门特征。

  • 改:作为管理培训的一个学科 ,国际商务研究讨论跨国界商务活动的特征 。


P67 lecture 3

p67 (lecture 3)

  • He started to his feet with the intention of awaking the sleepers, for there was no time to lose.

  • T:他倏地一下站起来 ,打算把睡觉的人都叫醒 ,因为时间十分紧迫 ,必须马上赶路。

  • 改:他倏地站起 准备叫醒其他还睡着的人时不宜迟 ,分秒必争。


P68 lecture 3

P68 (lecture 3)

  • Cleverer heads than mine might have seen his drift.

  • T:比我聪明的人 ,才弄得懂他葫芦里卖的是什么药。

  • 改:那些比我聪明的人早已觉察出他的意图了。


Chapter 8 concretion vs abstraction

Chapter 8

Concretion vs. Abstraction


P75 lecture 3

P75 –lecture 3

  • A firm’s involvement in exporting products can range from a minimal commitment all the way to considering exports as necessary for the firm’s survival and growth.

  • T:公司在产品出口中参与情况的程度不一,从最低程度的参与一直到将出口视为公司生存和发展必要条件的参与都会存在。

  • 改:公司在出口产品中参与程度迥异,从最小的出口量直到视出口量为公司生存与发展 的必要条件。


P77 lecture 3

p77-lecture 3

  • Advertisers must realize that people usually are motivated by the goal of satisfying some combination of two or more needs, and the needs may be both conscious and unconscious.

  • T:广告人必须明白,通常能够满足两个或者更多需要的综合目标才能促使人们购买 ,而且这些需要既可能是有意识的 ,又可能是无意识的.

  • 改1: 广告商须知 ,人们在实现能满足两个以上综合需求的 目标时才会激起消费欲 ,这些消费需求既可以是有计划的 ,也可以是没有计划的。

  • 改2: 广告商须知 ,如能满足人们两个以上的综合需求,才会激起其消费欲 ,这些消费需求既可以是有计划的 ,也可以是没有计划的。


Task iv

Task IV

Chapter 9

Impersonal vs. Personal


Chapter 9 subject

Chapter 9 Subject

pp.82-87


Task v biz terms

Task V Biz terms


Laura sisu

IPO


Example1

Example

  • Chinese shares opened lower on Monday, affected by a government decision over the weekend to resume initial public offerings (IPOs) in the domestic stock market.

  • 中国政府上周末宣布将要在国内股市重启IPO,受此消息影响,国内股市本周一早盘大幅低开。


Highlight

Highlight

  • open lower

  • 大幅低开

  • open low

  • 股市低开

  • to resume/relaunch initial public offerings

  • 重启IPO


Lecture 8 subordinate clauses syntactic structure 1 chapter 10

Lecture 8 Subordinate Clauses

Syntactic Structure (1)

Chapter 10


Laura sisu

  • Business is a combination of all these activities : production , distribution and sale , through which profit or economic surplus will be created. (教材p88)

  • 教材:商务是指生产、配送、销售等一切活动的组合 , 通过这些活动 ,创造利润或经济盈余。

  • 改:商务是指生产、分配、销售、并创造利润的一系列相关活动。

  • Marketing is a pervasive social activity that goes considerably beyond the selling of tooth paste , soap , and steel。

  • 营销是一种无处不在的社会活动 , 它远远超过牙膏、肥皂或者钢铁的销售活动。


Laura sisu

用汉语中表示同位成分的表达方式“即 ……”或者“——”

  • International trade transactions refer to the exportation of goods or services from one country to another , which is the importing country.

  • 国际贸易是指将商品或服务从一个国家出口到另一个国家 , 即进口的国家。

  • The Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) aims to achieve a situation where foreign investors are not discriminated against , but they are still subject to the same substantive laws and regulations that apply to domestic investors.

  • 多边投资协定的目标是要达到这样一种境界 ———外国投资者不受歧视 , 但他们仍和国内投资者一样要接受同样的基本法则的管制。


Laura sisu

3.译成状语

  • Unfortunately , every country in the world has trade barriers which are designed to protect its economy against international market forces.

  • 遗憾的是 , 世界各国都设置了贸易壁垒 , 以保护本国经济免受国际市场力量的冲击。


Laura sisu

EXX

  • We apologize for the inconvenience on you that has caused by our delay in delivery.

  • 由于我们未能及时发货给你方造成了不便 ,我方表示歉意。

  • Unlike other entrants , they excluded local broadcast programming (which was subject to change within 48 hours of air - time) , and they published on a monthly rather than weekly schedule (which lowered their costs of operation) .

  • 和其他新入行者不同 , 这两家公司排斥当地电视台的节目安排 (因为当地电视台的节目安排在48小时之内可能会随时有变化) , 而且每月出版一次而不是每周出版一次 (这就降低了他们的出版费用) 。


Adverbial clauses

Adverbial Clauses


Laura sisu

时间状语

  • Since the initiation of economic reforms in the late 1970s, China has achieved impressive economic growth coupled with significant structural transformation.

  • 中国自从20 世纪 70 年代末开始经济改革以来,已取得了令人瞩目的经济增长和重大的结构转变 。

  • Kindly advise us when our order will be shipped.

  • 请告知我方订货何时运出.


Laura sisu

EXX

  • We may accept deferred payment when the quantity to be ordered is over 3 000 sets.

  • 如果拟订购的数量超过 3 000 套,我们可以接受延期付款.

  • Since 1978,when China began opening its economy to increased foreign investment and trade, aggregate output has more than doubled.

  • 自从 1978 年以来,中国经济为日益增加的外国投资和贸易敞开大门,总产量增加了一倍 。

  • International trade occurs when a country does not have enough of a particular item to meet its needs.

    (p64)

  • 改:当一个国家的某种产品没有足够的量来满足本国需求时 ,国际贸易便应运而生了。


Laura sisu

地点状语从句

  • Floating policy is a convenient method of insuring goods where a number of similar export transactions are intended, e.g. where the insured has to supply an overseas importer under an exclusive sales agreement or maintains sales representatives or subsidiary companies abroad.

  • 统保单是货物保险中的一种便利的办法,特别适合于分不同的时间出口的一批同类货物 例如,当被保险方根据独家代理协议向国外的进口方供货,或在国外委任了销售代表,或在设立分支机构时可以使用。


Laura sisu

原因状语从句

  • Owing to the late arrival of your offer, we have already placed our order elsewhere.

  • 由于你方报盘过迟,我方已从他处订货 。

  • Please be informed that, on account of the fluctuations of foreign exchanges the quotation is subject to change without previous notice.

  • 兹告知贵方,由于外汇的波动,报价随时可能改变,不另行通知 。


Laura sisu

条件状语从句

  • Fifteen percent of the payment for the technical import shall be deduced providing that the less-than-main technique performance of the produce falls short of the index stipulated in the contract.

  • 如果产品主要性能达不到合同规定的指标,则应扣除技术引用费用的 15% 。

  • We should be grateful /pleased if you would give us further details of Chinese leather shoes.

  • 如能告知中国皮鞋的其它详情,将不胜感激 。


Laura sisu

EXX

  • Should the letter of credit fail to reach the Purchaser before the stipulated date, the contract shall be considered as null and void unless extensions approved by the Sellers.

  • 要是买方在规定日期内不开来信用证,本合同即作无效论,但经卖方同意延期者不在此例 。

  • The supplier shall be entitled to terminate this license in the event of failure by the Purchaser to comply with any of the conditions stated in this Article.

  • 若是买方违反本条所规定的任一条件,卖方有权中止这种特许权。


Laura sisu

让步状语从句

  • While this arrangement makes sure that the bill is accepted before the goods are handed over, there is still the risk that the bill could be "dishonored"-that is, not paid in due course by the importer.

  • 虽然这一安排确保在货物交手之前,汇票已为买主所承兑,但汇票被拒付的风险仍然存在,也就是说,进口商不按期付款。


Laura sisu

原因状语从句

  • Owing to the late arrival of your offer, we have already placed our order elsewhere.

  • 由于你方报盘迟达,我方已从他处订货

  • Please be informed that, on account of the fluctuations of foreign exchanges the quotation is subject to change without previous notice.

  • 兹告知贵方,由于外汇的波动,报价随时可能改变,不另行通知


Task ii chapter 10 pp88 100

Task II Chapter 10 pp88-100

Translation of

English subordinate clauses


P88 lecture 3

P88 (lecture 3)

Business is a combination of all these activities: production, distribution and sale, through which profit or economic surplus will be created.

  • 改译:商务是指生产、分配、销售、并创造利润的一系列相关活动。


P89 lecture 3

p89 (lecture 3)

  • In a turnkey project, the seller plans, constructs, and places in operation a foreign facility that is then transferred to a local owner.

  • T: 在由承包商完全承包的工程中,卖主计划 、建造并将一套国外设施投人运作,然后将其转让给地方雇主 。

  • 改: 在统包式项目中,卖方负责规划、建造一套国外进口设施并使其投人运行后 交付给当地的买主。


P91 lecture 3

P91 (Lecture 3)

Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed, but today it has a more technical definition, which is the production, distribution, and sale of goods and service for a profit.

T: 传统上,商务仅指人们所需要的物品的交换或贸易。但是 ,今天商务有更为科学的定义 ,它是指为了利润而进行货物和劳务的生产 、配送和销售的一种活动。

Improved: 传统意义上的商务是指人们为了获得所需求的物品而进行的交易活动。但是现在商务有了更为科学的定义:它指为了获取利润而进行的商品的生产、配送和销售活动,包括提供的服务业务。


Business knowledge p96 lecture 3

Business knowledge (p96)—lecture 3

  • Buyers or their chartering agent shall advise the Seller by fax 10 days prior to the arrival of the contract number, name of the carrying vessel, approximate loading capacity, lay days and port of loading.

  • 教材:买方或其租船代理人须于载货轮抵达装运港 天前以传真方式通知卖方合同号 、船名 、大约受载重量 、预计抵达日期及装运港名。

  • 修改:买方或其船代须于承运船抵达装货港前10天将合同号 、承运船名 、近似载重量 、在港时间和装货港以传真的方式告知卖方。


P98 lecture 3

P98 –Lecture 3

  • Should for certain reasons the Buyers not be able to inform the Seller of the foregoing details 10 days prior to the vessel at the port of loading or should the carrying vessel be advanced or delayed, the Buyer or their chartering agent shall advise the Sellers immediately and make necessary arrangement.

  • T:若买方由于某种原因不能于装运轮抵达装运港10前将上述详细情况通知卖方 ,或装运轮提前或推迟抵达 ,买方或其运输代理人须立即通知卖方并做出必要的安排。

  • 改: 如果买方由于种种原因不能于承运船抵达装货港10天前将上述细节告知卖方 ,或如果承运船提前或推迟抵港 ,买方或其船代须立 即通知卖方并做出妥善安排。


Me too product business definition

me-too product - Business Definition

me-too product

  • A product that is very similar to products manufactured by other companies and already on the market. For example, a toy manufacturer observes the immense popularity of a competitor's product and decides to produce its own version that is virtually identical.

  • Imitation, copy, replica, copycat


Highlight1

Highlight

  • me-too vt. 模仿, 跟随 adj. 仿造的

  • me-tooism n. 模仿, 追随

    EXX:

  • 仿制品几乎可以乱真,如果其价格货销售占有优势,他们也许可以获得成功。

  • While me-too products have qualities that are similar, they may succeed if they can offer an advantage in some other area, for example, price or distribution.

  • 仿制品的激增引发药品成本下降。

  • The proliferation of “me-too "drugs lead to cost reduction.


Thanks

Thanks


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