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Chapter 16: Endocrine System. Medical terminology. Chapter 16 Abbreviations. Ca Fe K Na 2 hr pp BMP BS FBS GTT. calcium iron potassium sodium two hour post-prandial (meal) blood glucose test basic metabolic panel blood sugar fasting blood sugar glucose tolerance test.

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Chapter 16 endocrine system

Chapter 16: Endocrine System

Medical terminology


Chapter 16 abbreviations
Chapter 16 Abbreviations

  • Ca

  • Fe

  • K

  • Na

  • 2 hrpp

  • BMP

  • BS

  • FBS

  • GTT

  • calcium

  • iron

  • potassium

  • sodium

  • two hour post-prandial (meal) blood glucose test

  • basic metabolic panel

  • blood sugar

  • fasting blood sugar

  • glucose tolerance test


Chapter 16 abbreviations1
Chapter 16 Abbreviations

  • T3

  • T4

  • TSH

  • DM

  • Type I

  • Type II

  • thyroid test (triiodothyronine)

  • thyroid test (thyroxine)

  • thyroid-stimulating hormone

  • diabetes mellitus

  • Type I diabetes, formerly known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes

  • Type II diabetes, formerly known as adult onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes


Endocrine system
Endocrine System

  • Composed of endocrine glands throughout the body, including: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads, and thymus

  • Function

    • Regulates body activities through the use of chemical messengers called hormones, which when released into the bloodstream influence metabolic activities, growth, and development

    • Regulates body activities through electrical impulses and activation of glandular secretions


Endocrine system1
Endocrine System

  • Endocrine Glands

    • pituitary gland or hypophysiscerebri

      • approximately the size of a pea and located at the base of the brain. Often referred to as the master gland because it produces hormones that stimulate the function of other endocrine glands. Divided into two lobes: anterior and posterior lobes

      • anterior lobe (adenohypophysis): produces and secretes the following hormones

        • growth hormone – regulates the growth of the body

        • adrenocorticotropic hormone – stimulates the adrenal cortex


Endocrine system2
Endocrine System

  • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) – stimulates the thyroid gland

  • gonadotropic hormones – affect the male and female reproductive systems

  • follicle-stimulating hormones , luteinizing hormone – regulate development, growth, and function of the ovaries and testes

  • prolactin-releasing hormone, lactogenic hormone – promotes development of glandular tissue during pregnancy and produces milk after birth of an infant


Endocrine system3
Endocrine System

  • posterior lobe (neurohypophysis): stores and releases antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin

    • antidiuretic hormone – stimulates the kidney to reabsorb water

    • oxytocin – stimulates uterine contractions during labor and postpartum

  • hypothalamus

    • located superior to the pituitary gland in the brain. Secretes “releasing” hormone that functions to stimulate or inhibit the release of pituitary gland hormones


  • Endocrine system4
    Endocrine System

    • thyroid gland

      • largest endocrine gland, located anteriorly in the neck below the larynx and comprises bilateral lobes connected by an isthmus.

      • secretes the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which require iodine for their production. Thyroxine is necessary for body cell metabolism

    • parathyroid glands

      • four small bodies embedded in the posterior aspect of the lobes of the thyroid gland. Parathormone, the hormone produced by the glands, helps maintain the level of calcium in the blood


    Endocrine system5
    Endocrine System

    • islets of Langerhans

      • clusters of endocrine tissue found throughout the pancreas, made up of different cell types that secrete various hormones, including insulin and glucagon. Non-endocrine cells found throughout the pancreas produce enzymes that facilitate digestion

    • adrenal glands or suprarenals

      • paired glands, one of which is located above each kidney. Outer portion is the adrenal cortex,the inner portion is the adrenal medulla. The glands secrete the following hormones:


    Endocrine system6
    Endocrine System

    • cortisol: secreted by the adrenal cortex. Aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels to provide energy (hydrocortisone)

    • aldosterone: secreted by the adrenal cortex. Electrolytes (mineral salts) that are necessary for normal body function are regulated by this hormone

    • epinephrine (adrenaline0, norepinephrine (noradrenaline): secreted by the adrenal medulla. These hormones help the body to deal with stress by increasing the blood pressure, heartbeat, and respirations


    Endocrine system7
    EndocrineSystem




    Word parts for endocrine system
    Word Parts for Endocrine System

    Combining Form

    Definition

    • aden/o

    • adren/o, adrenal/o

    • cortic/o

    • endocrin/o

    • mudull/o

    • parathyroid/o

    • pituitar/o

    • thyroid/o, thyr/o

    • gland

    • adrenal glands

    • cortex (outer layer of a body organ)

    • endocrine

    • medulla (middle/inner layer of body organ)

    • parathyroid glands

    • pituitary gland

    • thyroid gland


    Word parts for endocrine system1
    Word Parts for Endocrine System

    Combining Form

    Definition

    • acr/o

    • calc/i

    • dips/o

    • kal/i

    • natr/o

    • extremities, height

    • calcium

    • thirst

    • potassium

    • sodium

    Suffix

    Definition

    • run, running

    • -drome


    Med terms from word parts disease disorders
    Med Terms (from word parts)[Disease & Disorders]

    Term

    Definition

    • acromegaly

    • adenitis

    • adenomegaly

    • adenosis

    • adrenalitis

    • adrenomegaly

    • hypercalcemia

    • hyperglycemia

    • hyperkalemia

    • hyperpituitarism


    Med terms from word parts disease disorders1
    Med Terms (from word parts)[Disease & Disorders]

    Term

    Definition

    • hyperthyroidism

    • hypocalcemia

    • hypoglycemia

    • hypokalemia

    • hyponatremia

    • hypopituitarism

    • hypothryoidism

    • parathyroidoma

    • thyroiditis


    Med terms not from word parts disease disorders
    Med Terms (not from word parts)[Disease & Disorders]

    Term

    Definition

    • acidosis

    • goiter

    • tetany

    • thyrotoxicosis

    • condition brought about by an abnormal accumulation of acid products of metabolism such as seen in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus

    • enlargement of the thyroid gland

    • condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as a result of low amounts of calcium in the blood caused by a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone

    • a condition caused by excessive thyroid hormones


    Med terms from word parts surgical terms
    Med Terms (from word parts)[Surgical Terms]

    Term

    Definition

    • adenectomy

    • adrenalectomy

    • parathyroidectomy

    • thyroidectomy

    • thyroidotomy

    • thyroparathyroidectomy


    Med terms not from word parts diagnostic terms
    Med Terms (not from word parts)[Diagnostic Terms]

    Term

    Definition

    LABORATORY

    • fasting blood sugar (FBS)

    • thyroid-stimulating hormone level (TSH)

    • a blood test performed after the patient has fasted for 8 to 10 hours to determine the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood at the time of the test. Elevation may include diabetes mellitus

    • a blood test that measures the amt. of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood; used to diagnose hypothyroidism and to monitor patients on thyroid replacement therapy


    Med terms not from word parts diagnostic terms1
    Med Terms (not from word parts)[Diagnostic Terms]

    Term

    Definition

    • thyroxine level (T4)

    • a blood study that gives the direct measurement of the amount of thyroxine in the patient’s blood. A greater-than-normal amount indicates hyperthyroidism; a less-than-normal amount indicates hypothyroidism


    Med terms from word parts complementary terms
    Med Terms (from word parts)[Complementary Terms]

    Term

    Definition

    • adrenocorticohyperplasia

    • adrenopathy

    • cortical

    • corticoid

    • endocrinologist

    • endocrinology

    • endocrinopathy

    • euthyroid

    • polydipsia

    • syndrome


    Med terms not from word parts complementary terms
    Med Terms (not from word parts)[Complementary Terms]

    Term

    Definition

    • hormone

    • metabolism

    • a chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland that is carried in the blood to a target tissue

    • sum total of all the chemical processes that take place in a living organism


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