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BONDING. Covalent Bonds. LET’S FIRST REVIEW IONIC BONDING. K. F. In an IONIC bond, electrons are lost or gained, resulting in the formation of IONS in ionic compounds. K. F. K. F. K. F. K. F. K. F. K. F. _. +. K. F. _. +. K. F. The compound potassium fluoride

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BONDING

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BONDING

Chem-160


Covalent

Bonds

Chem-160


LET’S

FIRST

REVIEW

IONIC

BONDING

Chem-160


K

F

In an IONIC bond,

electrons are lost or gained,

resulting in the formation of IONS

in ionic compounds.

Chem-160


K

F

Chem-160


K

F

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K

F

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K

F

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K

F

Chem-160


K

F

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_

+

K

F

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_

+

K

F

The compound potassium fluoride

consists of potassium (K+) ions

and fluoride (F-) ions

Chem-160


_

+

K

F

The ionic bond is the attraction

between the positive K+ ion

and the negative F- ion

Chem-160


So

what

are

covalent

bonds?

Chem-160


In covalent bonding,

atoms still want to achieve

a noble gas configuration

(the octet rule).

Chem-160


In covalent bonding,

atoms still want to achieve

a noble gas configuration

(the octet rule).

But rather than losing or gaining

electrons,

atoms now share an electron pair.

Chem-160


In covalent bonding,

atoms still want to achieve

a noble gas configuration

(the octet rule).

But rather than losing or gaining

electrons,

atoms now share an electron pair.

The shared electron pair

is called a bonding pair

Chem-160


Chlorine

forms

a

covalent

bond

with

itself

Cl2

Chem-160


How

will

two

chlorine

atoms

react?

Cl

Cl

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Cl

Cl

Each chlorine atom wants to

gain one electron to achieve an octet

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Cl

Cl

Neither atom will give up an electron –

chlorine is highly electronegative.

What’s the solution –what can they

do to achieve an octet?

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

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Cl

Cl

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

octet

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

octet

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

The octet is achieved by

each atom sharing the

electron pair in the middle

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

The octet is achieved by

each atom sharing the

electron pair in the middle

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

This is the bonding pair

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

It is a single bonding pair

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

It is called aSINGLE BOND

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

Single bonds are abbreviated

with a dash

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

Chem-160


Cl

Cl

This is the chlorine molecule,

Cl2

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

Chem-160


O2

Oxygen is also one of the diatomic molecules

Chem-160


O

O

How will two oxygen atoms bond?

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O

O

Each atom has two unpaired electrons

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O

O

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O

O

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O

O

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O

O

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O

O

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O

O

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O

O

Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative.

So both atoms want to gain two electrons.

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O

O

Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative.

So both atoms want to gain two electrons.

Chem-160


O

O

Chem-160


O

O

Chem-160


O

O

Chem-160


O

O

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O

O

Both electron pairs are shared.

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O

O

6 valence electrons

plus 2 shared electrons

= full octet

Chem-160


O

O

6 valence electrons

plus 2 shared electrons

= full octet

Chem-160


O

O

two bonding pairs,

making a doublebond

Chem-160


O

O

O

O

=

For convenience, the double bond

can be shown as two dashes.

Chem-160


O

O

=

This is the oxygen molecule,

O2

Chem-160


Chem-160


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