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BONDING. Covalent Bonds. LET’S FIRST REVIEW IONIC BONDING. K. F. In an IONIC bond, electrons are lost or gained, resulting in the formation of IONS in ionic compounds. K. F. K. F. K. F. K. F. K. F. K. F. _. +. K. F. _. +. K. F. The compound potassium fluoride

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BONDING

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Bonding

BONDING

Chem-160


Bonding

Covalent

Bonds

Chem-160


Bonding

LET’S

FIRST

REVIEW

IONIC

BONDING

Chem-160


Bonding

K

F

In an IONIC bond,

electrons are lost or gained,

resulting in the formation of IONS

in ionic compounds.

Chem-160


Bonding

K

F

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Bonding

K

F

Chem-160


Bonding

K

F

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Bonding

K

F

Chem-160


Bonding

K

F

Chem-160


Bonding

K

F

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_

+

K

F

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_

+

K

F

The compound potassium fluoride

consists of potassium (K+) ions

and fluoride (F-) ions

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_

+

K

F

The ionic bond is the attraction

between the positive K+ ion

and the negative F- ion

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So

what

are

covalent

bonds?

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In covalent bonding,

atoms still want to achieve

a noble gas configuration

(the octet rule).

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In covalent bonding,

atoms still want to achieve

a noble gas configuration

(the octet rule).

But rather than losing or gaining

electrons,

atoms now share an electron pair.

Chem-160


Bonding

In covalent bonding,

atoms still want to achieve

a noble gas configuration

(the octet rule).

But rather than losing or gaining

electrons,

atoms now share an electron pair.

The shared electron pair

is called a bonding pair

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Chlorine

forms

a

covalent

bond

with

itself

Cl2

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How

will

two

chlorine

atoms

react?

Cl

Cl

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Bonding

Cl

Cl

Each chlorine atom wants to

gain one electron to achieve an octet

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Bonding

Cl

Cl

Neither atom will give up an electron –

chlorine is highly electronegative.

What’s the solution –what can they

do to achieve an octet?

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Cl

Cl

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Bonding

Cl

Cl

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Cl

Cl

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Cl

Cl

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Cl

Cl

octet

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Bonding

Cl

Cl

octet

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

Chem-160


Bonding

Cl

Cl

The octet is achieved by

each atom sharing the

electron pair in the middle

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

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Bonding

Cl

Cl

The octet is achieved by

each atom sharing the

electron pair in the middle

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

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Cl

Cl

This is the bonding pair

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

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Cl

Cl

It is a single bonding pair

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

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Cl

Cl

It is called aSINGLE BOND

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

Chem-160


Bonding

Cl

Cl

Single bonds are abbreviated

with a dash

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

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Cl

Cl

This is the chlorine molecule,

Cl2

circle the electrons for

each atom that completes

their octets

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O2

Oxygen is also one of the diatomic molecules

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O

O

How will two oxygen atoms bond?

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O

O

Each atom has two unpaired electrons

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O

O

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O

O

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Bonding

O

O

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O

O

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O

O

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O

O

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O

O

Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative.

So both atoms want to gain two electrons.

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Bonding

O

O

Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative.

So both atoms want to gain two electrons.

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O

O

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O

O

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O

O

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O

O

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O

O

Both electron pairs are shared.

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O

O

6 valence electrons

plus 2 shared electrons

= full octet

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O

O

6 valence electrons

plus 2 shared electrons

= full octet

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O

O

two bonding pairs,

making a doublebond

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O

O

O

O

=

For convenience, the double bond

can be shown as two dashes.

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O

O

=

This is the oxygen molecule,

O2

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Bonding

Chem-160


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