Chapter 2 section 3
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Chapter 2 / Section 3. The Egyptian Empire. The Middle Kingdoms (pgs. 59-67). About 2300 B.C., pharaohs lost control of Egypt due to nobles fighting over power. Finally, a new dynasty of pharaohs came to power and moved the capital south, from Memphis to Thebes ( theebz ).

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Chapter 2 / Section 3

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Chapter 2 section 3

Chapter 2 / Section 3

The Egyptian Empire

The middle kingdoms pgs 59 67

The Middle Kingdoms (pgs. 59-67)

  • About 2300 B.C., pharaohs lost control of Egypt due to nobles fighting over power.

  • Finally, a new dynasty of pharaohs came to power and moved the capital south, from Memphis to Thebes (theebz).

  • This began the Middle Kingdom which lasted from about 2050 B.C. to 1670 B.C. and was a

    time of stability, prosperity, and


Drive for more land

Drive For More Land

  • Egypt took control of other lands.

    - captured Nubia to the south

    - attacked what is now Syria

  • Forced conquered people to send tribute, forced payments.

  • Pharaohs added:

    - more waterways and dams

    - increased amount of farmed land

    - built canal between Nile River and Red Sea

The arts blossom

The Arts Blossom

  • During the Middle Kingdom, arts, literature, and architecture thrived.

    - painting

    - sculpting

    - poetry

    - song

  • A new form of architecture emerged. Instead of building pyramids, pharaohs had their tombs cut into cliffs – Valley of the Kings

End of middle kingdom

End of Middle Kingdom

  • The Middle Kingdom came to an end in 1670 B.C. when the Hyksos (hihk*sahs), from western Asia, conquered Egypt.

  • Hyksos ruled Egypt for about 150 years.

The new kingdom pgs 61 62

The New Kingdom (pgs. 61-62)

  • Around 1550 B.C., an Egyptian prince named Ahmose (ahm*ohs) drove Hyksos out of Egypt.

  • Ahmose’s reign began the period known as the New Kingdom, 1550 B.C. to about 1080 B.C.

  • During the New Kingdom, Egypt was at the height of its glory and grew richer and more powerful.

A woman ruler

A Woman Ruler

  • About 1473 B.C., a queen named Hatshepsut (hat*SHEHP*soot) came to power in Egypt.

  • First woman to rule Egypt.

  • Hatshepsut was more interested in trade than conquest. Trade journeys brought great wealth to Egypt.


Thutmose iii

Thutmose III

  • Thutmose III (thoot*moh*suh) became pharaoh after Hatshepsut’s death.

  • Under Thutmose’s reign:

    * aggressive wars of conquest

    * empire grew rich from trade and tribute

    *enslaved many prisoners of war

The legacies of two pharaohs pgs 64 65

The Legacies of Two Pharaohs (pgs. 64 & 65)

  • About 1370 B.C., Amenhotep IV (ah*muhn*hoh*tehp) came to the throne.

  • Helped by his wife, Nefertiti (nehf*uhr*teet*ee).

  • Amenhotep thought priests had too much power so introduced new monotheistic (belief in one god) religion – Aton (ah*tuhn)

  • Most Egyptians refused to accept new religion.

  • Changed his name to Akhenaton (ahk*nah*tuhn).

  • Akhenaton neglected his duties as pharaoh and Egypt’s empire greatly diminished.

The boy king

The Boy King

  • Tutankhamen (too*tang*kah*muhn), better known as King Tut, inherited the throne when Akhenaton died.

  • The new pharaoh was only about 9 years old and only ruled for 9 years before dying unexpectedly (suffered a fall or murdered?).

  • Became most famous of all pharaohs after a

    British archaeologist found his tomb in 1922.

  • The tomb had not been looted or robbed and contained incredible treasures, including a brilliant gold mask of the young pharaoh’s face.

Chapter 2 section 3

The end of the new kingdom pgs 65 67

The End of the New Kingdom (pgs. 65-67)

  • Ramses II (ram*seez) was one of the most effective pharaohs of the New Kingdom.

  • He reigned for 66 years, from 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C.

  • Under Ramses II, Egyptians regained lands in western Asia and many temples were built.

  • The most magnificent was Karnak at Thebes.

Egypt s decline and fall

Egypt’s Decline and Fall

  • After Ramses II, Egypt’s power began to decline.

  • By 1150 B.C., the Egyptians had lost their empire and controlled only the Nile delta.

  • Beginning in the 900s B.C., Egypt was ruled by:

    - Libyans

    - Kush (760 B.C.)

    - Assyrians (670 B.C.)

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