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Network Communication Hardware






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Network Communication Hardware. Chapter 3. This presentation will:. Help you understand what hardware is required to allow networks to work including: Repeaters Hub Switch Bridge Gateway (not needed for exam) Router Network Interface Cards Wireless Access Points
Network Communication Hardware

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Slide 1

Network Communication Hardware

Chapter 3

Slide 2

This presentation will:

  • Help you understand what hardware is required to allow networks to work including:

    • Repeaters

    • Hub

    • Switch

    • Bridge

    • Gateway (not needed for exam)

    • Router

    • Network Interface Cards

    • Wireless Access Points

    • Wireless Network Interface Cards

Slide 3

Repeater

  • Used to boost signals if they become weak.

  • Weak signals can be caused by a drop in voltage. This is usually the cause of distances being too big between networks.

  • As distances increase voltages drop.

Slide 4

Repeater

  • Quicky What type of hardware could go where the question mark is? Discuss.

Client

Client

Client

Client

Room 1

Repeater

Client

Client

Server

?

Room 2

Slide 5

Hub

  • Used to connect many computers to one place.

  • A star network is a typical example of this.

  • All computers connect to a hub.

  • The hub then connects to the server.

  • Data packets are broadcast to all connected devices.

Slide 6

Hub

Client

Client

The hub is used to allow 4 computers to physically connect to the network. The hub is then connected to the server.

Hub

Server

  • The following diagram shows two hubs segmented using a bridge (see bridge). Four computers have direct access to the network, although only one hub has direct access to the server.

Client

Client

Server

Client

Hub

Bridge

Hub

Client

Client

Client

Slide 7

Switch

  • More ‘intelligent’ than a hub.

  • Can set up communication paths between different clients and servers.

  • This can all be done at the same time (unlike the hub – which can only deal with one thing at a time).

  • This is particularly good when network traffic is high.

Slide 8

Switch

Print Server

Printer

Client

  • Four web designers share both large and small files. Sometimes they send and receive emails with videos attached, download animations, upload large web pages, save and retrieve large files and print various files.

  • A star topology was used because of its speed and security.

  • A switch was used as it can direct files efficiently by choosing the connections needed to make. This is especially useful when all four designers are accessing the network at the same time.

    • As the switch can make simultaneous connections.

Client

Web Server

Switch

Server

File Server

Client

Mail Server

Client

Slide 9

Bridge

  • Used to connect two similar LANs together.

  • Users think it is logically one LAN even though it is physically two.

  • Allows clients of one network to access resources on another network.

  • Used to split large networks into segments.

Slide 10

Bridge

Segment 2

Segment 1

  • Segments are simple parts of a whole network.

  • Networks often split into smaller segments to maximise network efficiency.

    • Computers that usually talk to each other are kept in the same network. This minimises the risk of packet collisions.

    • This is common place when businesses are split into departments. Computers in the sales department will be on one segment, where as the finance department will have computers in a different segment. But, they are still part of the same network.

    • The bridge will have ports so that it can forward any traffic to another segment if needed. The bridge also blocks communications. It will know which computers are in which segment. If a packet is sent to a computer in the same segment as its originator, it will be blocked from going to the other segments on the network.

Client

Client

Client

Bridge

Port A

Port B

Client

Client

Client

Slide 11

Gateway (Not needed for exam)

  • More ‘intelligent’ than a bridge.

  • Allows different network types to communicate.

  • Will convert one network protocol into another network protocol so that it may be understood across the network.

  • This allows each network type to send and receive data across different network types.

  • This is especially useful when networks are in different places and require the use of the telephone network to transmit data e.g. when using a WAN.

Slide 12

Router

  • This can be both hardware and software.

  • It takes a packet of data, looks at its intended address, and then forwards it to the correct location on the network.

  • This network might be a LAN or WAN, such as the internet.

  • It is mainly used to connect LANs to WANs.

Slide 13

Network card (or Network Interface Card)

  • Every computer wishing to connect to a network will need a network card.

    • Or Network Interface Card (NIC)

  • It can be a stand-alone card or built into a motherboard…regardless of which…you still need one.

  • Each card has its own physical address known as a MAC address – (Media Access Control).

  • The MAC address is a unique address that no other device will have in the world.

Slide 14

Wireless Access Points

  • Effectively a hub but communicates wirelessly.

  • Usually connected via a single cable to a switch.

  • Because they broadcast signals, data packets are easy to intercept.

  • For this reason, WAP provides encryption methods...but this can slow down data transfer speeds as more data needs to be sent!

  • The better the encryption the slower the transfer speed.

Slide 15

Wireless Access Points

A signal is broadcast out

Client

Client

WAP

Switch

Client

Client

Slide 16

Wireless Access Points

Client

Client

WAP

Switch

Client

Client

Slide 17

Wireless Access Points

Client

Client

WAP

Switch

Client

Client

Slide 18

Wireless Access Points

Client

Client

WAP

Switch

Client

Client

Slide 19

Wireless Access Points

Client

Client

WAP

Switch

Client

Client

Slide 20

Wireless Access Points

Client

Client

WAP

Switch

Client

Client

Slide 21

Wireless Access Points

The wireless device broadcasts back!

Any device in broadcast range could intercept it!

Client

Client

WAP

Switch

Client

Client

Baddy Client!

Slide 22

Wireless Access Points

Client

Client

WAP

Switch

Client

Client

Baddy Client!

Slide 23

Wireless Access Points

Client

Client

WAP

Switch

Client

Client

Baddy Client!

Slide 24

Wireless Access Points

Client

Client

WAP

Switch

Client

Client

Baddy Client!

Slide 25

Wireless Access Points

Client

Client

WAP

Switch

Client

Client

Baddy Client!

Slide 26

Wireless Network card

  • There are different methods that can be used to connect to a network wirelessly.

    • The wireless NIC may form part of the internal circuitry of the device.

    • A USB wireless dongle could be used.

    • An adapter card that fits in to a PCMCIA slot on a laptop or an expansion slot in a desktop computer.

  • It too will have a MAC address and will need to use the 802.11g communication standard.

Slide 27

Activity

  • Clearly explain the difference between a hub and a switch.

  • Explain why WAPs provide encryption methods.

  • Describe the use of a repeater.

  • What does a network card do?

  • Clearly describe the purpose of a router.

  • A company wants to set up an intranet. What is an intranet and why might they want one?

Slide 28

Activity

  • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of a Hub, Switch and Router. You may use a table to help you but your final answer should be in continuous prose.

  • What is a MAC address?

  • Identify the device that extends the range of cables.

  • Draw a diagram which describes the following situation:

    • Two rooms are far apart but in the same building. They form the same logical network but don’t share the same physical network. Some of the computers need to connect wirelessly in only one of the rooms. Because a lot of computers are connected to this network traffic is a problem so a device is required to minimise the ‘noise’ on the network by only forwarding data packets to the correct address.


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