The copernican revolution
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The Copernican Revolution. The Birth of Modern Science. Ancient Astronomers. Found several large, important structures in the ancient world that appear astronomically aligned Used for rituals, timekeeping, agrarian cycles. E pluribus unum. Western astronomy was influenced by:

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The copernican revolution

The Copernican Revolution

The Birth of Modern Science


Ancient astronomers

Ancient Astronomers

  • Found several large, important structures in the ancient world that appear astronomically aligned

  • Used for rituals, timekeeping, agrarian cycles


E pluribus unum

E pluribus unum

  • Western astronomy was influenced by:

    • Antediluvian Civilizations

      • Agrarian Timekeeping

    • Ancient Greece

      • Time divisions, ratios, zodiacal relations

    • Muslim Caliphates

      • Too much to list here

    • Adapted into the Scientific Revolution

      • Revolution against what?


Which of these is believed to be an ancient observatory

Which of these is believed to be an ancient observatory?

  • Stonehenge

  • El Caracol

  • The Quabba

  • All of these


What is one practical reason for studying the skies

What is one practical reason for studying the skies?

  • Zodiacal influence

  • Fortune-telling

  • Agriculture

  • Myths

  • Religion


What label is given to the most ancient civilizations

What label is given to the most ancient civilizations?

  • Ancient

  • Old

  • Older

  • Antediluvian

  • Postdiluvian


For what were structures like this believed to be used

For what were structures like this believed to be used?

  • Astronomical reasons

  • Religious reasons

  • Cultural reasons

  • All of the above


Identify this structure

Identify this structure

  • Stonehenge

  • El Caracol

  • The Sun Dagger

  • Newgrange


Identify this structure1

Identify this structure

  • Stonehenge

  • El Caracol

  • The Sun Dagger

  • Newgrange


Identify this structure2

Identify this structure

  • Stonehenge

  • El Caracol

  • The Sun Dagger

  • Newgrange


Geocentrism

Geocentrism

  • Belief that the Earth is the center of the Universe

  • Easy to prove the bodies rotate around Earth, just look up

    • Early models just matryoshka-style nesting spheres

  • Opposite to Heliocentrism, that the Sun is the center of the Solar System


The copernican revolution

GEOCENTR I C


The copernican revolution

HEL IOCENTR I C


Unheard cries

Unheard Cries

  • Many Classical Astronomers believed in, and had proof of, a heliocentric universe

  • They did not get public acceptance, as Aristotle was held in high regard by many kings, publican members, etc.

  • Aristarchus, Eratosthenes, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

  • There were a few problems with the “perfect spheres”


Retrograde

Retrograde

  • Inner planets dive back towards the Sun

  • Outer planets make small loops in the sky every so often…

  • Could this mean the Heavens weren’t perfect?

    • Of course, not! All it takes is a little creative imagining…


Mars 1997

Mars 1997


The aristotelian cycles

The Aristotelian Cycles

  • Aristotle thought maybe each planet on its sphere moved in a small circle centered on the larger sphere

  • Epicycle – the smaller circle

  • Deferens – the larger circle (orbit)

    • epi- surface

    • cycle- circle


Ptolemaic system

Ptolemaic System

  • Ptolemy was a Greek scholar living in Egypt

  • Refined Aristotle’s epicycle theories

  • Ptolemy’s epicycle-based system required no less than some 80 different cycles

  • Imagine a clock with many gears


Close minded

Close-minded?

  • The Ptolemaic Model was popular for some 1300 years

  • Many religions consider us, and the Earth, special and specially located

  • A heliocentric model made them feel less significant


The earth is at the center of a

The Earth is at the center of a

  • Geocentric model

  • Heliocentric model

  • Gaiacentric model

  • Galactican model


The primary refusal to keep the earth at the center of the universe was

The primary refusal to keep the Earth at the center of the universe was

  • Religion

  • Open-mindedness

  • Laziness

  • “mental inertia”


The sun is at the center of a

The Sun is at the center of a

  • Geocentric model

  • Heliocentric model

  • Juliacentric model

  • Galactican model


Circles on spheres that allow for retrograde motion were called

Circles on spheres that allow for retrograde motion were called

  • Cycles

  • Minicycles

  • Dermicycles

  • Epicycles


One greek scientist who is credited with codifying planetary motion is

One Greek scientist who is credited with “codifying” planetary motion is

  • Copernicus

  • Galileo

  • Epicurius

  • Aristotle

  • Newton

  • Ptolemy


Identify this view of the universe

Identify this view of the universe

  • Heliocentric

  • Egocentric

  • Geocentric

  • Gynocentric


Identify this view of the universe1

Identify this view of the universe

  • Heliocentric

  • Egocentric

  • Geocentric

  • Gynocentric


What is a small circle centered on a planets nested sphere

What is a small circle centered on a planets’ nested sphere?

  • Epidermals

  • Epiladis

  • Epicycles

  • Epidurals


Epicycles were devised to explain which motion of a planet in the sky

Epicycles were devised to explain which motion of a planet in the sky?

  • Prograde

  • Retrograde

  • Downgrade

  • Upgrade


The scientific revolution was a rebellion against what

The “Scientific Revolution” was a rebellion against what?

  • Ignorance

  • Close-mindedness

  • Superstitions

  • All of the above


Nicholas copernicus

Nicholas Copernicus

  • Rediscovered Aristarchus’s heliocentric model

  • Used it to show harmony and simplicity

  • Explained retrograde motion and brightness changes


The copernican revolution

Huh?

  • Still stuck to epicycles

  • Believed in his theory rather than proved it

  • Unimpressed public

  • Some 70 years (two ancient generations) passed until his work was proven/improved upon

  • Still declared a heretic


The downfall of the epicycle

The Downfall of the Epicycle

  • Occam’s Razor

  • Increasing accuracy of observations

  • Longevity of observations


Tycho brahe

Tycho Brahe

  • True “Renaissance Man”

  • Built Uraniborg, an observatory in Denmark

  • Kept some of the most accurate naked-eye observations for almost 50 years


The copernican revolution

  • Brahe’s naked-eye observations were extremely accurate due to the overly-large instruments he built


Johannes kepler

Johannes Kepler

  • Met up with Tycho in Prague in 1600

  • When Tycho died, Kepler inherited his copious tables of data

  • Was more controlled scientifically than his peers

  • Used math to promote several principles


But then again

But, then again…

  • Kepler was wrong about a great many things…

    • He believed in a perfect geometry of the Universe as evidence of God

    • This caused him to reject the correct answer that orbits weren’t circular more than once


What was the flaw in the copernican view of the solar system

What was the flaw in the Copernican view of the solar system?

  • Kept the Earth at the center

  • Had the Moon in orbit around the Sun

  • Still used epicycles

  • He couldn’t read ancient Greek


Which astronomer kept some of the best naked eye observations

Which astronomer kept some of the best naked-eye observations?

  • Aristarchus

  • Tycho Brahe

  • Johannes Kepler

  • Nicolas Copernicus


Beside their outstanding accuracy what was special about brahe s observations

Beside their outstanding accuracy, what was special about Brahe’s observations?

  • He used a telescope

  • Their unparalled accuracy

  • He wrote backwards and upside down

  • He kept these logs for many years


Johannes kepler rejected many sound scientific arguments while pursuing

Johannes Kepler rejected many sound scientific arguments while pursuing…

  • An online degree

  • Geometric perfection

  • Mrs. Johannes Kepler

  • The Unification Theory


Brahe s accuracy in his observations was due to the

Brahe’s accuracy in his observations was due to the

  • Longevity of his observations

  • Sizes of his astronomical tools

  • Excellent assistants he hired

  • Copious quantities he quaffed


Participant scores

Participant Scores


Kepler s first law

0

Kepler’s First Law

  • The orbital paths of the planets are elliptical with the Sun at one focus


The copernican revolution

0

Semi-Major Axis

FOCI


The copernican revolution

0

Eccentricity

How “not circular” an orbit is

The Sun is at one focus


The copernican revolution

CIRCULAR ORBIT

e = 0

Small planets around single stars

Single stars around galaxies

NEAR-CIRCULAR ORBIT

0.005  e  0.250

Most single planets around single stars

Asteroids, “dwarf” planets around single stars

Single stars around galaxies

HIGHLY ELLIPTICAL ORBIT

0.250  e

Certain “dwarf” planets around single stars

Comets

“Perturbed” items


Jupiter perturbing a comet

Jupiter “perturbing” a comet


Aphelion and perihelion

0

Aphelion and Perihelion

  • Perihelion

  • Point of an orbit closest to the Sun

    • = a (1 – e)

  • Aphelion

  • Point of an orbit farthest from the Sun

    • = a (1 + e)


Kepler s second law

0

Kepler’s Second Law

  • An imaginary line connecting the Sun to a planet sweeps equal areas of the ellipse in equal intervals of time


Kepler s third law

0

Kepler’s Third Law

  • The square of the planet’s orbital period is proportional to the cube of its semi-major axis

  • p2 = a3

  • Obeyed by all planets, not just the six Kepler knew about


The copernican revolution

For the planets

Ceres


The copernican revolution

For the Galilean satellites


Kepler s star

0

Kepler’s star

  • Seen in 1604

  • The HST snapped this picture a few years ago, showing the expanding gas cloud


Galileo gallilei

Galileo Gallilei

  • Used a telescope

    • Mountains on the Moon

    • Sunspots

    • Jovian Moons

    • Phases of Venus

    • Rings of Saturn

  • Found many “imperfections”

  • Wasn’t trying to anger the Church


Sidereus nuncius

Sidereus Nuncius

  • Published in 1610

  • In 1616 his works were declared heresy

  • Published a second treatise, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, in 1632

    • Published in Italian rather than Latin

  • Placed under house arrest until he died

  • “Forgiven” in 1992


Latter day proofs

Latter-Day Proofs

  • Aberration of starlight, c. 1720

  • Apparent shift of a star due to the revolution and rotation of the Earth


Latter day proofs1

Latter-Day Proofs

  • Parallax

    • If the Earth was the center, there wouldn’t be parallax from June to January

  • Multiple launched vehicles that follow predicted paths


Who first used a telescope to observe and quantify the heavens

Who first used a telescope to observe and quantify the heavens?

  • Ptolemy

  • Copernicus

  • Galileo

  • Brahe


The copernican revolution

Who made multiple-year, high quality observations with large instruments in order to quantify the heavens?

  • Ptolemy

  • Copernicus

  • Galileo

  • Brahe


Many of galileo s observations challenged the church views because

Many of Galileo’s observations challenged the Church views because

  • They were mathematical

  • They were unorganized

  • They showed “imperfections”

  • They were a challenge to modesty


Which type of orbit would you expect ceres or vesta to exhibit

Which type of orbit would you expect Ceres or Vesta to exhibit?

  • A

  • B

  • C

A

B

C


Who used mathematics to provide explanations for astronomical movements

Who used mathematics to provide explanations for astronomical movements?

  • Kepler

  • Copernicus

  • Galileo

  • Brahe


Which of these are not one of galileo s controversial observations

Which of these are not one of Galileo’s controversial observations?

  • Mountains on the Moon

  • Saturn’s Rings

  • The Andromeda Galaxy

  • Venus’s phases


What would eris s period be in years if she lies some 67 7 au from the sun

What would Eris’s period be in years if she lies some 67.7 AU from the Sun?

  • 4583 yrs

  • 557 yrs

  • 16.7 yrs

  • 310288 yrs


Which type of orbit would you expect halley s comet to exhibit

Which type of orbit would you expect Halley’s comet to exhibit?

  • A

  • B

  • C

A

B

C


For his work copernicus and galileo were both

For his work, Copernicus and Galileo were both

  • Celebrated in their time

  • Considered heretics

  • Mostly ignored by others

  • Honored as living heroes


What is ceres s semimajor axis if she takes 4 6 yrs to orbit the sun

What is Ceres’s semimajor axis if she takes 4.6 yrs to orbit the Sun?

  • 2.8 AU

  • 9.9 AU

  • 21.1 AU

  • 97 AU


Participant scores1

Participant Scores


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