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The Copernican Revolution. The Birth of Modern Science. Ancient Astronomers. Found several large, important structures in the ancient world that appear astronomically aligned Used for rituals, timekeeping, agrarian cycles. E pluribus unum. Western astronomy was influenced by:

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the copernican revolution

The Copernican Revolution

The Birth of Modern Science

ancient astronomers
Ancient Astronomers
  • Found several large, important structures in the ancient world that appear astronomically aligned
  • Used for rituals, timekeeping, agrarian cycles
e pluribus unum
E pluribus unum
  • Western astronomy was influenced by:
    • Antediluvian Civilizations
      • Agrarian Timekeeping
    • Ancient Greece
      • Time divisions, ratios, zodiacal relations
    • Muslim Caliphates
      • Too much to list here
    • Adapted into the Scientific Revolution
      • Revolution against what?
which of these is believed to be an ancient observatory
Which of these is believed to be an ancient observatory?
  • Stonehenge
  • El Caracol
  • The Quabba
  • All of these
what is one practical reason for studying the skies
What is one practical reason for studying the skies?
  • Zodiacal influence
  • Fortune-telling
  • Agriculture
  • Myths
  • Religion
what label is given to the most ancient civilizations
What label is given to the most ancient civilizations?
  • Ancient
  • Old
  • Older
  • Antediluvian
  • Postdiluvian
for what were structures like this believed to be used
For what were structures like this believed to be used?
  • Astronomical reasons
  • Religious reasons
  • Cultural reasons
  • All of the above
identify this structure
Identify this structure
  • Stonehenge
  • El Caracol
  • The Sun Dagger
  • Newgrange
identify this structure1
Identify this structure
  • Stonehenge
  • El Caracol
  • The Sun Dagger
  • Newgrange
identify this structure2
Identify this structure
  • Stonehenge
  • El Caracol
  • The Sun Dagger
  • Newgrange
geocentrism
Geocentrism
  • Belief that the Earth is the center of the Universe
  • Easy to prove the bodies rotate around Earth, just look up
    • Early models just matryoshka-style nesting spheres
  • Opposite to Heliocentrism, that the Sun is the center of the Solar System
unheard cries
Unheard Cries
  • Many Classical Astronomers believed in, and had proof of, a heliocentric universe
  • They did not get public acceptance, as Aristotle was held in high regard by many kings, publican members, etc.
  • Aristarchus, Eratosthenes, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
  • There were a few problems with the “perfect spheres”
retrograde
Retrograde
  • Inner planets dive back towards the Sun
  • Outer planets make small loops in the sky every so often…
  • Could this mean the Heavens weren’t perfect?
    • Of course, not! All it takes is a little creative imagining…
the aristotelian cycles
The Aristotelian Cycles
  • Aristotle thought maybe each planet on its sphere moved in a small circle centered on the larger sphere
  • Epicycle – the smaller circle
  • Deferens – the larger circle (orbit)
    • epi- surface
    • cycle- circle
ptolemaic system
Ptolemaic System
  • Ptolemy was a Greek scholar living in Egypt
  • Refined Aristotle’s epicycle theories
  • Ptolemy’s epicycle-based system required no less than some 80 different cycles
  • Imagine a clock with many gears
close minded
Close-minded?
  • The Ptolemaic Model was popular for some 1300 years
  • Many religions consider us, and the Earth, special and specially located
  • A heliocentric model made them feel less significant
the earth is at the center of a
The Earth is at the center of a
  • Geocentric model
  • Heliocentric model
  • Gaiacentric model
  • Galactican model
the primary refusal to keep the earth at the center of the universe was
The primary refusal to keep the Earth at the center of the universe was
  • Religion
  • Open-mindedness
  • Laziness
  • “mental inertia”
the sun is at the center of a
The Sun is at the center of a
  • Geocentric model
  • Heliocentric model
  • Juliacentric model
  • Galactican model
circles on spheres that allow for retrograde motion were called
Circles on spheres that allow for retrograde motion were called
  • Cycles
  • Minicycles
  • Dermicycles
  • Epicycles
one greek scientist who is credited with codifying planetary motion is
One Greek scientist who is credited with “codifying” planetary motion is
  • Copernicus
  • Galileo
  • Epicurius
  • Aristotle
  • Newton
  • Ptolemy
identify this view of the universe
Identify this view of the universe
  • Heliocentric
  • Egocentric
  • Geocentric
  • Gynocentric
identify this view of the universe1
Identify this view of the universe
  • Heliocentric
  • Egocentric
  • Geocentric
  • Gynocentric
what is a small circle centered on a planets nested sphere
What is a small circle centered on a planets’ nested sphere?
  • Epidermals
  • Epiladis
  • Epicycles
  • Epidurals
epicycles were devised to explain which motion of a planet in the sky
Epicycles were devised to explain which motion of a planet in the sky?
  • Prograde
  • Retrograde
  • Downgrade
  • Upgrade
the scientific revolution was a rebellion against what
The “Scientific Revolution” was a rebellion against what?
  • Ignorance
  • Close-mindedness
  • Superstitions
  • All of the above
nicholas copernicus
Nicholas Copernicus
  • Rediscovered Aristarchus’s heliocentric model
  • Used it to show harmony and simplicity
  • Explained retrograde motion and brightness changes
slide43
Huh?
  • Still stuck to epicycles
  • Believed in his theory rather than proved it
  • Unimpressed public
  • Some 70 years (two ancient generations) passed until his work was proven/improved upon
  • Still declared a heretic
the downfall of the epicycle
The Downfall of the Epicycle
  • Occam’s Razor
  • Increasing accuracy of observations
  • Longevity of observations
tycho brahe
Tycho Brahe
  • True “Renaissance Man”
  • Built Uraniborg, an observatory in Denmark
  • Kept some of the most accurate naked-eye observations for almost 50 years
slide46
Brahe’s naked-eye observations were extremely accurate due to the overly-large instruments he built
johannes kepler
Johannes Kepler
  • Met up with Tycho in Prague in 1600
  • When Tycho died, Kepler inherited his copious tables of data
  • Was more controlled scientifically than his peers
  • Used math to promote several principles
but then again
But, then again…
  • Kepler was wrong about a great many things…
    • He believed in a perfect geometry of the Universe as evidence of God
    • This caused him to reject the correct answer that orbits weren’t circular more than once
what was the flaw in the copernican view of the solar system
What was the flaw in the Copernican view of the solar system?
  • Kept the Earth at the center
  • Had the Moon in orbit around the Sun
  • Still used epicycles
  • He couldn’t read ancient Greek
which astronomer kept some of the best naked eye observations
Which astronomer kept some of the best naked-eye observations?
  • Aristarchus
  • Tycho Brahe
  • Johannes Kepler
  • Nicolas Copernicus
beside their outstanding accuracy what was special about brahe s observations
Beside their outstanding accuracy, what was special about Brahe’s observations?
  • He used a telescope
  • Their unparalled accuracy
  • He wrote backwards and upside down
  • He kept these logs for many years
johannes kepler rejected many sound scientific arguments while pursuing
Johannes Kepler rejected many sound scientific arguments while pursuing…
  • An online degree
  • Geometric perfection
  • Mrs. Johannes Kepler
  • The Unification Theory
brahe s accuracy in his observations was due to the
Brahe’s accuracy in his observations was due to the
  • Longevity of his observations
  • Sizes of his astronomical tools
  • Excellent assistants he hired
  • Copious quantities he quaffed
kepler s first law

0

Kepler’s First Law
  • The orbital paths of the planets are elliptical with the Sun at one focus
slide57

0

Semi-Major Axis

FOCI

slide58

0

Eccentricity

How “not circular” an orbit is

The Sun is at one focus

slide60

CIRCULAR ORBIT

e = 0

Small planets around single stars

Single stars around galaxies

NEAR-CIRCULAR ORBIT

0.005  e  0.250

Most single planets around single stars

Asteroids, “dwarf” planets around single stars

Single stars around galaxies

HIGHLY ELLIPTICAL ORBIT

0.250  e

Certain “dwarf” planets around single stars

Comets

“Perturbed” items

aphelion and perihelion

0

Aphelion and Perihelion
  • Perihelion
  • Point of an orbit closest to the Sun
    • = a (1 – e)
  • Aphelion
  • Point of an orbit farthest from the Sun
    • = a (1 + e)
kepler s second law

0

Kepler’s Second Law
  • An imaginary line connecting the Sun to a planet sweeps equal areas of the ellipse in equal intervals of time
kepler s third law

0

Kepler’s Third Law
  • The square of the planet’s orbital period is proportional to the cube of its semi-major axis
  • p2 = a3
  • Obeyed by all planets, not just the six Kepler knew about
kepler s star

0

Kepler’s star
  • Seen in 1604
  • The HST snapped this picture a few years ago, showing the expanding gas cloud
galileo gallilei
Galileo Gallilei
  • Used a telescope
    • Mountains on the Moon
    • Sunspots
    • Jovian Moons
    • Phases of Venus
    • Rings of Saturn
  • Found many “imperfections”
  • Wasn’t trying to anger the Church
sidereus nuncius
Sidereus Nuncius
  • Published in 1610
  • In 1616 his works were declared heresy
  • Published a second treatise, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, in 1632
    • Published in Italian rather than Latin
  • Placed under house arrest until he died
  • “Forgiven” in 1992
latter day proofs
Latter-Day Proofs
  • Aberration of starlight, c. 1720
  • Apparent shift of a star due to the revolution and rotation of the Earth
latter day proofs1
Latter-Day Proofs
  • Parallax
    • If the Earth was the center, there wouldn’t be parallax from June to January
  • Multiple launched vehicles that follow predicted paths
who first used a telescope to observe and quantify the heavens
Who first used a telescope to observe and quantify the heavens?
  • Ptolemy
  • Copernicus
  • Galileo
  • Brahe
slide83
Who made multiple-year, high quality observations with large instruments in order to quantify the heavens?
  • Ptolemy
  • Copernicus
  • Galileo
  • Brahe
many of galileo s observations challenged the church views because
Many of Galileo’s observations challenged the Church views because
  • They were mathematical
  • They were unorganized
  • They showed “imperfections”
  • They were a challenge to modesty
who used mathematics to provide explanations for astronomical movements
Who used mathematics to provide explanations for astronomical movements?
  • Kepler
  • Copernicus
  • Galileo
  • Brahe
which of these are not one of galileo s controversial observations
Which of these are not one of Galileo’s controversial observations?
  • Mountains on the Moon
  • Saturn’s Rings
  • The Andromeda Galaxy
  • Venus’s phases
what would eris s period be in years if she lies some 67 7 au from the sun
What would Eris’s period be in years if she lies some 67.7 AU from the Sun?
  • 4583 yrs
  • 557 yrs
  • 16.7 yrs
  • 310288 yrs
for his work copernicus and galileo were both
For his work, Copernicus and Galileo were both
  • Celebrated in their time
  • Considered heretics
  • Mostly ignored by others
  • Honored as living heroes
what is ceres s semimajor axis if she takes 4 6 yrs to orbit the sun
What is Ceres’s semimajor axis if she takes 4.6 yrs to orbit the Sun?
  • 2.8 AU
  • 9.9 AU
  • 21.1 AU
  • 97 AU
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