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Chapter 16 Adolescence: Social and Emotional Development

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Chapter 16 Adolescence: Social and Emotional Development. Development of Identity and the Self-Concept. “Who Am I?” (And Who Else?). What Does Erikson Have to Say About the Development of Identity During Adolescence?. Identity versus Identity diffusion Primary task: develop ego integrity

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development of identity and the self concept

Development of Identity and the Self-Concept

“Who Am I?”

(And Who Else?)

slide3

What Does Erikson Have to Say About the Development of Identity During Adolescence?

  • Identity versus Identity diffusion
    • Primary task: develop ego integrity
  • Psychological moratorium
    • Experimental period
  • Identity Crisis
    • Successful resolution is understanding who you are and what you stand for
slide4

What Are Marcia’s “Identity Statuses”?

  • Four statues based on two dimensions
    • Exploration – active questioning alternatives in search of goals
    • Commitment – stable investment in goals
  • Identity diffusion
    • Low exploration and commitment
  • Foreclosure
    • Low exploration; high commitment
  • Moratorium
    • High exploration; low commitment
  • Identity achievement
    • High exploration and commitment
slide5

Ethnicity and Development of Identity

  • Development of self-identity is more complex for ethnic minorities
    • Need to assimilate two sets of values – dominant and minority
    • Prejudice and discrimination
    • Scarcity of role models
  • Stages of ethnic identity development
    • Unexamined ethnic identity (foreclosed state)
    • Ethnic identity search (moratorium state)
    • Achieved ethnic identity
slide6

Gender Roles and Development of Identity

  • Erikson concluded
    • Career matters were more important to men
    • Relationships were more important to women
  • As a result men developed identity before intimacy while women developed intimacy before identity
  • Research contradicts this and suggests men and women are equally concerned about career
    • Women continue to integrate family and career plans
slide7

How Does Self-Concept Develop During Adolescence?

  • Self-descriptions
    • As children, focus on physical characteristics and actions
    • As adolescence, incorporate distinct and enduring personality traits
  • Self-descriptions become more differentiated
    • With formal-operational skills, able to integrate contradictory elements
slide8

What Happens to Self-Esteem During Adolescence?

  • In early adolescence, self-esteem declines
    • Disparity between ideal and real self
  • From age 13, self-esteem gradually improves
    • May adjust ideas about ideal self
    • May become less self-critical
  • Emotional support from family and peers is important
    • Initially, family support more important
    • By late adolescence, peer support more important
slide10

How Do Relationships With One’s Parents and Peers Change During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Relationship with parents
    • Time spent with family decreases during adolescence
      • Boys tend to spend more time alone
      • Girls tend to spend more time with friends
    • More time spent with mother
      • More conflicts but also more support
    • Remaining close to family
      • More self-reliant and independence, higher self-esteem and better school performance
    • Conflicts are more frequent
      • Based on issues of control
slide11

How Do Relationships With One’s Parents and Peers Change During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Parenting Styles
    • Authoritative parenting
      • Teens show more competent behavior than other groups
      • More self-reliant, do better in school
      • Better mental health, lowest incidence of problems and misconduct
slide12

How Do Relationships With One’s Parents and Peers Change During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Relationship with peers
    • Role of peers increases throughout adolescence
  • Friendships
    • More friends than younger children
    • One of two “best friends”
    • Based on acceptance, intimate self-disclosure and mutual understanding
    • Typically same age, race, and sex
  • Friendship contributes to
    • Positive self-concept and psychological adjustment
slide13

Ethnicity, Sex and Adolescent Friendships

  • Children choose friends from their ethnic group
    • European American female teens report support from friends
    • African American, male and female, both report support from friends
      • Ethnic stressors may push minority teens to seek support
  • Intimacy and closeness more central to girls’ friendships
    • Adolescent girls report friendships as more important than boys do
  • Girls’ friendship networks are smaller and more exclusive
    • Girls tend to participate in unstructured activities
    • Boys engage in organized group activities
slide14

What Kind of Adolescent Peer Groups Are There?

  • Cliques
    • 5 to 10 people who hang around together
    • Shared activities and confidences
  • Crowds
    • Larger groups who do not spend much time together
    • Defined by activity or attitude of group
  • Adolescent peer groups
    • Spend considerable time together
    • Function with little or no adult control
    • May include teens of other sex
slide15

When Do Romantic Relationships Develop?

  • Begin in early to middle adolescence
  • Sequence of dating
    • Putting oneself in situations with peers of other sex
    • Group activities that include peers of other sex
    • Group dating
    • Two-person dating
  • Dating in early adolescence
    • Casual and short-lived
  • Dating in later adolescence
    • More stable and committed
slide16

How Much Influence Do Peers Have On Each Other?

  • Peer pressure peaks during mid-adolescence
    • Peers provide standard for behaviors
    • Peers provide support
  • Adolescents are influenced by both parents and peers
    • Peer influence styles and taste
    • Parent influence moral principles and future goals
slide17

What Are Some Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Adolescence?

  • Masturbation
    • Most common sexual outlet for teens
    • Nearly universal among male teens, less among female teens
  • Sexual Orientation
    • Sexually attracted to, and interested in forming a relationship
      • with people of other sex – Heterosexual
      • with people of same sex – Homosexual
      • with people of either sex – Bisexual
    • One may engage in sexual activity outside of sexual orientation
slide18

Homosexual Sexual Orientation

  • Stages of sexual identity for gay and lesbians
    • Attraction to members of same sex
    • Self-labeling as gay or lesbian
    • Sexual contact with members of same sex
    • Disclosure of sexual orientation to others/coming out
  • Depression and suicide - higher among gay youth
slide19

Why Do Some Teenagers Initiate Sexual Activity at an Early Age, While Others Wait Until Later?

  • High school students
    • Since 90’s, gradual decline in %age engage in sexual intercourse
    • Males more likely than girls to be sexually active
  • Effects of puberty
    • Early onset puberty – earlier sexual activity
  • Parental influences
    • Close relationship with parents – less early sexual activity
  • Peer influences
    • Predictor of sexual activity
      • Sexual activity of best friend
slide21

In This Cultural Setting, Why Do Teenage Girls Become Pregnant?

  • Receive little advice about sexuality
  • Failure to use contraception
  • Use pregnancy to achieve intimacy, demonstrate rebellion
  • Uneducated about reproduction and contraception
  • Half of pregnant teens will get an abortion
    • Most teen moms will be single moms
slide22

Figure 16.2 Percentage of Sexually Active Students in Grades 9-12 Who Report Using a Condom the Last Time They Had Sexual Intercourse

slide23

Figure 16.3 Trends in Pregnancy and Birthrates Among Women, Age 15-19, in the United States and Other Developed Nations

slide24

What Are the Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy?

  • Consequences for pregnant teen
    • More likely to experience medical complications
    • Less likely to complete education
    • Lower salaries
  • Consequences for teen father
    • Lower grades in school than peers
    • Enter workforce at earlier age
  • Consequences for children of teen mom
    • Lower cognitive functions
    • More behavioral, emotional problems
    • More likely to become teen parent
slide25

Preventing Teenage Pregnancy

  • Sex education programs
  • Successful programs
    • Increase knowledge about sexuality
    • Delay onset of sexual activity
slide26

What Is Juvenile Delinquency?

  • Illegal activities committed by child or adolescent
    • Some activities are illegal only if committed by minors
      • Status offenses
  • Ethnicity
    • Factors for overrepresentation of African American youth in juvenile justice system
      • Racial bias
      • Economic factors
slide27

What Are the Sex Differences in Delinquent Behavior?

  • Boys more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors
  • Boys commit more crimes of violence
    • Girls commit more status offenses
  • More girls are likely to be arrested for being runaways
    • More runaways
    • Double standard
slide28

Who Is Most Likely to Engage in Delinquent Behavior?

  • Many risk factors and causality is not clear
    • Poor school performance
    • Delinquent friends, substance abuse
    • Early aggressive or hyperactive behaviors
    • Low verbal IQ, immature moral reasoning
    • Low self-esteem and impulsivity
    • Parents and/or siblings have been involved in antisocial behaviors
  • Prevention and Treatment
    • Focus on individual offender
    • Focus on systems
    • Early childhood intervention programs
slide29

How Many Adolescents Commit Suicide? Why?

  • Among older teens – suicide is 3rd or 4th leading cause of death
  • Risk factors for suicide
    • Depression and hopelessness
    • Confusion about self, interpersonal problems
    • Impulsiveness, emotional instability
    • Stressful life events
  • Origins of suicide
    • Social problems
      • Less capable of solving problems
    • Genetics
      • Suicide and psychological problems runs in families
slide30

How Do We Define Adulthood?

  • Many different criterion for adulthood
    • Historically – marriage
    • Today – Independent from parents
      • Financial and residence
slide31

How Do We Define Emerging Adulthood?

  • Distinct period – straddles 18 through 25
    • Extended period for exploration
    • Appear in affluent societies
  • Erikson’s moratorium
    • Extended search for identity
slide32

Erikson’s Stages of Adulthood?

  • Intimacy vs Isolation
  • Generativity vs Stagnation
  • Integrity vs Despair
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