Epoch of mass press. Ing. Jiří Šnajdar 2013.
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Epoch of mass press
Ing. Jiří Šnajdar 2013
Beginning of the industrial revolution is dated from the 2nd half of 18th century. From it logically influences industrialisation (beginnings firstly in England). Basal pillars of industrialisation are mainly coal and steel and symbol is steam machine, invention of which is mistakenly attributed to J.Watt in the year 1785.
Industrialisation consequences are mechanisation of production, lastly convert to series production, unusual increase of effectiveness, modernisation – at that time used English word progress. Negative consequences are especially economical crisis.
Europe during the 19th century, despite all inner contradictions, national conflicts, revolutions, for example Big French revolution or so called European revolution in 1848, power conflicts, and wars, becomes in the eve of the 1st world war a collective world hegemonic, naturally thanks to asserting of imperialism and colonialism. At that time loom other new great powers – USA and Japan.
The social ambience also progresses, new social groups crystallise (especially labour) and interest groups (divisions) and their new, socialist ideology, which radicalise them.
The leading role of Europe after the 1st world war was broken, non-solved conflicts and world economical crisis brought the middle Europe to “explosion” of the 2nd world war, which captured not only Europe, but the whole world, influenced its further progress and adumbrated smouldering conflicts (West – East and North - South).
All these facts returned also in media sphere. From these reasons starts to form newspapers for wide readers´ groups, its edition is increasing, in the USA issues from the year 1833 the mass The Sun, in England develops after gradual decrease of charge for newspapers fee stamp the penny press as a base of tabloids, which during years overgrows in global phenomenon. On the other side develops interest and especially parties´ press.
In the Czech countries: Issues Prague newspapers - F. L. Čelakovský, managing editor K. H. Borovský (1846), follow The National newspaper, Prague evening sheet, Newspapers Slavic Linden Tree, The National newspaper, Workers leaves, Old Czech printing, but also party´s press The National Policy, Popular newspapers, The right of the people.
In the year 1877 was found Czech Association of Journalists, at the end of 19th century dominated in Bohemia so called literary journalism - P. Bezruč, S. K. Neuman, F. X. Šalda, K. Čapek, E. Bass, E. E. Kisch, K. Poláček, in press arise 3 basic content domains : social-political, literary and academic. After the year 1918 forms clear social function of press, new periodicals are arising – Tribune, Popular leaves, Red right etc., regional newspapers are developing, political parties establish editorial houses, for example Melantrich, Novina and tabloid Tempo.
Demand for new actual news also from abroad is the impulse to establish specialised press agencies, originally commercial oriented information were later supplemented with politics news : First press agencies were 1835 Agence Havas, 1846 Harbour News Associated Press, 1849 Wolffsches Telegraphenbüro, 1851 Reuters Telegraph Company in the 20th century were divided influence spheres (to mentioned acceded UPI and TASS).
In the year 1918 was established Czech News Agency, after the year 1993 is separated from the state, is taken a multimedia editorial system and video reporting. Daily produces 500 text news, 200 photos, 3 videos and 25 acoustics records.
Advertising appears already by V. M. Kramerius - first Czech advertisement issues in his newspapers in the year 1789. From advertisement returns are financed not only newspapers, but also popular calendars, which publishers produced as almanacs for standard price 50 krejcar (penny), From beginning was the advertising taxed and permitted only in periodicals, managed by government.
The primary purpose of advertising is to earn money, as the one of the first worked with advertising as a mean of profit of money E. de Gerandér in Le Monde. Beginning of promotion and advertising plays a basic role for economical sustainability of periodical.
At the beginning of the 19th was the advertising only small, from the 30thappears advertisement of large companies, commercial advertisement. Innovator in paid advertising with given tariffs in advance is offer of marriages. End of 19th century stabilises the advertising form on the last page in newspapers, segregated with a line, divided in surface and line, in sections and according to thematic segmentation.
Advertising relates with advertisement, is the first impulse for formation of advertisement agency. In Bohemia is as beginning of commercial advertisement considered guild abolition by Trade Act from the year 1860, which also defined conditions for establishing of advertising and advertisement agencies.
From this follows that already at that time was in some cases provided for a customer so called “full service”. One of the first promotional experts in Czech Zdenko Šindler states: „We do not doubt that with exception of school and daily press no other power did so much for education as advertisement.” In the year 1927 was founded a magazine TYP under leadership of Dr. Jan Brabec with aim to propagate education about advertisement importance and systematically educate and provide with qualification in branch.
Expansion of large companies brings also progress of advertisement realised in own sections, for example Bata, Skoda, CKD etc. and new procedures, POP, beginnings of MK, PR, development of photo advertisement and film, also radio spots.
From the 20th century grows importance of media, promotional and advertising agencies, proves influence on the USA.
Advertising after the year 1945 tries to follow pre-war activities, renews the activity of REKLUB, issues again the magazine TYP - dr. J. Kubálek.
After February 1948 is the advertisement considered for bourgeois anachronism, is planning, rationing comes in useful, is no goods, are not possibilities to make an advertisement, advertisement is understood as a tool of competitive fight, given untrue information only to sell and differentiates the society. At the beginning of the year 1949 is cancelled the magazine TYP.
After the year 1955 begins to issue the magazine Advertising in the socialist economy, later under the title Advertising. The socialistic theory divides propagation into economical, social-educational and government.
From the 50th develop new agencies :
Rapid, securing especially propagation for foreign countries and state propagation. “Promo state trading enterprise “ later „MERKUR – advertising company “ and Brno Trade Fairs and Exhibitions (BVV). In the sixtieth forms Made in…(Publicity), in the Slovakia Optima and Union of Consumer Cooperatives founds Promotional Company. In the seventies entrenches the firm INCHEBA in Bratislava. Professional literature appear, three basic tasks of propagation form : providing with information, orientation on customer and truth.