Ch 2 and 9.1 Relationships Between 2 Variables. More than one variable can be measured on each individual. Examples: Gender and Height Size and Cost Eye color and Major We want to look at the relationship among these variables. Is there an association between these two variables?
Shows the percentages
for the joint, marginal,
and conditional distributions.
r = 1
r = 0
r = -1
r = 0.04
r = -0.84
r = 0.76
r = 0.21
It is possible for there to be a strong relationship between two variables and still have r ≈ 0.
where y is the point and is the predicted point.
How much of the variation is explained
by the least squares line of y on x? ______
What is the correlation coefficient? ______
Horsepower = -10.78 + 0.04*weight (Equation of the line.)
__________: y-value or response (horsepower) when line crosses the y-axis.
_______: increase in response for a unit increase in explanatory variable.
So if weight increases by one pound, horsepower increases by 0.04 units (on average).
Lurking Variable: A variable that is not among the explanatory or response variables in a study and yet may influence the interpretation of relationships among those variables.
Simpson’s Paradox: An association or comparison that holds for all of several groups can reverse direction when the data are combined to form a single group. This reversal is called Simpson’s Paradox. This can happen when a lurking variable is present. Please see Examples 9.9 and 9.10 in the text.
Child 18 is an outlier in the x direction. Because of its extreme position on the age scale, this point has a strong influence on the position of the regression line.
r2 is also affected by the influential observation. With Child 18, r2 = 41%, but without Child 18, r2 = 11%. The apparent strength of the association was largely due to a single influential observation.
The dashed line was calculated leaving out Child 18. The solid line is with Child 18.