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Implications of the National Early Literacy Panel for Early Braille Literacy PART ONE. National Center for Family Literacy American Printing House for the Blind Visually Impaired Preschool Services. Preliminary Findings of the National Early Literacy Panel.

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Implications of the national early literacy panel for early braille literacy part one l.jpg

Implications of the National Early Literacy Panelfor Early Braille LiteracyPART ONE

National Center for Family Literacy

American Printing House for the Blind

Visually Impaired Preschool Services


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Preliminary Findings of theNational Early Literacy Panel

Update: the final report of the National Early Literacy Panel was released January 8, 2009 and can be accessed at http://www.famlit.org/site/c.gtJWJdMQIsE/b.2133427/k.2623/National_Early_Literacy_Panel.htm

Bonnie Lash Freeman

Director – Training/Special Projects

National Center for Family Literacy


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Purpose of the Family Partnership in Reading ProjectInstructional strategies will be identified based on the scientific research that will enable staff in family literacy programs and early childhood programs to:


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Purpose of the Family Partnership in Reading Project

Help young children develop the foundational skills they need to become good readers

Equip parents to support their children’s literacy development

Improve reading instruction for parents in

family literacy programs


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National Early Literacy Panel Members

  • Dr. Anne Cunningham, University of California at Berkeley

  • Dr. Kathy Escamilla, University of Colorado at Boulder

  • Dr. Janet Fischel, State University of New York at Stony Brook

  • Dr. Susan H. Landry, University of Texas—Houston


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National Early Literacy Panel Members

  • Dr. Christopher J. Lonigan, Florida State University

  • Dr. Victoria Molfese, University of Louisville

  • Dr. Chris Schatschneider, Florida State University

  • Dr. Timothy Shanahan (Chair), University of Illinois at Chicago

  • Dr. Dorothy Strickland, Rutgers University


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Purpose of the NELP

  • To:

    • Synthesize the research on early literacy development including parent and home program effects

    • Deliver a final report of their findings


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Emergent Literacy

Emergent literacy involves the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are developmental precursors to conventional forms of reading and writing

(Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998).


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Emergent Literacy

Emergent literacy skills are the basic building blocks for learning to read and write.


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How to define emergent literacy

Two conditions need to be satisfied for something to be considered an emergent literacy skill:

  • Must come before conventional

    literacy skills.

  • Must be related to (i.e., predictive of) conventional literacy skills.


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What is a Research Synthesis?

A research synthesis, also referred to as a research integration, research review, literature review, and a meta-analysis is a method of inquiry used to derive generalizations from the collective findings of a body of existing studies.


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Benefits of a Research Synthesis

  • The aggregation of research allows for an accounting and weighing of research evidence in support of a research question.


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Limits to a Research Synthesis

  • Limited most by the availability and quality of research on a particular question.

  • Generalizations made from a research synthesis must stay within the bounds of the research.



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  • What are young children’s (ages birth through five years) skills and abilities that predict later reading, writing and spelling outcomes?

    2. What programs and interventions contribute to or inhibit gains in children’s skills and abilities and are linked to later outcomes in reading, writing and spelling?


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3. What environments and settings contribute to or inhibit gains in children’s skills and abilities and are linked to later outcomes in reading, writing and spelling?

4. What child characteristics contribute to or inhibit gains in children’s skills and abilities and are linked to later outcomes in reading, writing and spelling?


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What skills constitute the domain of conventional literacy skills?

Receptively

  • Decoding (accuracy and fluency)

  • Reading Comprehension


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What skills constitute the domain of conventional literacy skills?

Although decoding is not all there is to skilled reading, it is a critical component.

  • You can decode what you cannot comprehend, but…

  • you cannot comprehend what you cannot decode.


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What skills constitute the domain of conventional literacy skills?

Expressively

  • Spelling

  • Composition


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Strong Predictors: skills?

  • Alphabet Knowledge

  • Concepts About Print

  • Phonological Awareness

  • Invented Spelling

  • Oral Language

  • Writing Name/Writing

  • RAN (Rapid Automatic Naming)


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Unique predictors from the skills? multivariate studies:

  • Alphabet Knowledge

  • Phonological Awareness

  • Rapid Automatic Naming

  • Writing/Writing Name

  • Phonological STM




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Oral Language Defined Comprehension

  • In pairs, define the oral language terms.

  • Chart your definitions.

  • In small groups, discuss one strategy that you can use with children that matches the term you defined.

  • Add to your chart


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Components of Oral Language Comprehension

  • What aspect of oral language is being examined matters a lot.

  • Vocabulary is a weak predictor of later decoding and comprehension.

  • More complex aspects of oral language, like grammar and definitional vocabulary, are very strong predictors of decoding and comprehension.

  • Implications for early childhood programs.


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Components of Phonological Awareness Comprehension

  • Early forms of phonological awareness are strong predictors of later reading skills.

  • Measures of rhyme are not the best indicator of how well children are acquiring this key pre-reading skill.


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Answering Question 2 Comprehension(Effects of Interventions)Process & Results


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  • Category 1 Comprehension:

    Helping Children Make Sense of Print--Cracking the Alphabetic Code and Teaching Letters and Words

    (PA, Letter Knowledge, Spelling, Phonics, Print Awareness, Visual Perceptual/Perceptual Motor)


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  • Category 2: Comprehension

    Reading to and Sharing Books with Young Children

  • Category 3:

    Parent and Home Programs for Improving Young Children’s Literacy


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  • Category 4: Comprehension

    Preschool and Kindergarten Programs

  • Category 5:

    Language Enhancement Studies


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Example: Storybooks and Print Awareness Comprehension

  • Laura M. Justice and Helen K. Ezell

  • 30 Head Start children, native English speakers

  • Pretest-posttest control-group research design

  • 8 week book-reading intervention – small group reading sessions

  • Experimental – print focus

  • Control – picture focus


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Cont. Comprehension

Example: print focus prompts

  • Print Conventions – Where is the front of this book? Show me the way I need to read.

  • Concept of word – Where is the first word on this page?

  • Alphabet knowledge – Does anyone see any letters in their name on this page?


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Cont. Comprehension

  • Results indicated that for three of the subtests

    • Print Recognition

    • Words in Print

    • Alphabet Knowledge

    • and in terms of the Phonological Awareness composite


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Cont. Comprehension

the children who participated in print focused reading sessions demonstrated significantly greater gains from pretest to post test compared to the children in the picture focused reading groups.


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Summary: ComprehensionOverall Intervention Findings

  • Evidence for significant effects of some (but not all) early childhood interventions in the promotion of literacy and literacy-related skills.


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Summary: ComprehensionOverall Intervention Findings

  • Efforts to teach code-related skills are highly successful.

    • Phonological Awareness Skills

    • Alphabet Knowledge

    • Concepts About Print

  • Shared-book reading helps promote oral language skills.


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Summary: ComprehensionOverall Intervention Findings

  • Evidence of a sizable impact of parent and home programs for the promotion of oral language skills.

  • Relatively weak evidence for the effectiveness of undifferentiated preschool programs on reading achievement.

  • Oral language interventions work.



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Implications of the appropriate curricula (e.g., content, intensity, sequence).National Early Literacy Panelfor Early Braille LiteracyPART TWO

Suzette Wright APH Emergent Literacy Project Leader

Pauletta Feldman VIPS Special Projects Coordinator


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Preliminary findings of the National Early Literacy Panel ( appropriate curricula (e.g., content, intensity, sequence).NELP ) point to early skills that predict favorable literacy outcomes for young, typically sighted print readers.


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NELP confirms the critical importance of the years appropriate curricula (e.g., content, intensity, sequence).before school and the contributions of:

  • parents and the home environment

  • teachers of preschoolers and preschool programs


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NELP appropriate curricula (e.g., content, intensity, sequence).

  • Correlative information regarding early predictive skills and later

    • decoding

    • comprehension

    • spelling


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NELP appropriate curricula (e.g., content, intensity, sequence).

  • Guide for future research

    • address observed gaps in existing research

    • secondary and more detailed analyses of NELP data


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What does NELP indicate about: appropriate curricula (e.g., content, intensity, sequence).

  • skills needed by a preschooler who will read braille?

  • the settings and circumstances in which those skills may be learned and developed?


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Can NELP findings guide us as we work to ensure a foundation for literacy for children who will read braille?


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NELP predictors for literacy for children who will read braille?

  • Alphabet knowledge*

  • Concepts about print

  • Phonological awareness*

  • Invented spelling

  • Oral language

  • Writing name/writing*

  • Rapid automatic naming (RAN)*

    • letters, digits, also things and colors


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Unique predictors for literacy for children who will read braille?

  • Alphabet knowledge*

  • Phonological awareness*

  • Writing name/writing*

  • Rapid automatic naming (RAN)*

    • letters, digits, things and colors


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Oral Language for literacy for children who will read braille?

Literacy is about connecting written words to spoken language that has meaning for the reader.


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Oral language--closely correlated subskills for literacy for children who will read braille?

  • receptive language

  • expressive language

  • grammar

  • definitional vocabulary


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Oral language—what to do? for literacy for children who will read braille?

  • Ensure development of oral language skills is a part of work with children and their families

  • Begin early: complex language abilities are related to the child’s ability as a 6-month-old to distinguish basic units of spoken sounds (Kuhl, 2002)


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Oral language—what to do? for literacy for children who will read braille?

  • Build early communication skills through turn-taking

  • Extend early language

  • Ensure exposure to a wide range of concepts and related language


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Oral language—what to do? for literacy for children who will read braille?

  • Read-aloud—talking about the story, unfamiliar words, and meaning; asking questions

Dialogic reading—

http://www.readingrockets.org/articles/400


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Oral language—what to do? for literacy for children who will read braille?

  • Be watchful for and share strategies to handle common problems areas

    • misuse of pronouns

    • echolalia

    • use of questions


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Oral language—what to do? for literacy for children who will read braille?

  • Talk with the child—

    extended discourse

    - things that interest the child

    - using nouns and descriptive words

    - connecting words to experiences

    modeling proper grammar


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Oral language—importance of home setting and caregiver characteristics

Hart & Risley (1995) longitudinal study

  • 42 families

  • 9 mos. to 3 years

  • amount/type of language spoken

  • caregiver style


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Oral language—Hart & Risley study characteristics

Linked to higher scores on language and intelligence tests at 4th grade:

  • frequently interacting with the young child

  • inviting child’s involvement

  • following the child’s lead

  • using encouragement and a positive tone

  • extended conversations


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Oral language--vocabulary characteristics

  • Students who enter kindergarten knowing more vocabulary learn new vocabulary at twice the rate of students who begin with a lower vocabulary (Neuman, 2005).


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Vocabulary—what to do? characteristics

  • Pairing language with related experiences

  • Engaging in extended discourse, introducing new words

  • Reading aloud—exposure to rare words, broader vocabulary


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Phonological awareness (PA) characteristics

PA appears to support decoding skills by helping a child notice letter-sound relationships and comprehension by helping the beginning reader recognize words as he blends sounds (McGee & Richgels, 2000; Gillon & Young, 2002).


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Phonemic awareness is important to success in decoding characteristicsand learning to decode leads to further improvement in phonemic awareness(Gillon, 2004)


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PA-closely correlated subskills characteristics

  • phonemes

  • subphonemes

  • not rhyme—although rhyme may be important as a building block for more refined phonemic awareness skills . . .


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PA—importance for child with vi characteristics

  • Study of students who used braille as their primary reading medium showed a strong relationship between the students' level of phonemic awareness and braille reading skills (Gillon & Young, 2002)


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PA—what to do? characteristics

  • Talking with a child, from birth


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PA—what to do? characteristics

  • Play with words, rhymes, alliteration

    • Daily conversation

    • Read-aloud from books with word play/rhyme

    • Songs and chants— clapping/marching in time


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PA—what to do? characteristics

  • Play games that draw attention to beginning sounds

  • Use objects to substitute for pictures

    • Gather household objects with same beginning sound


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Alphabetic knowledge characteristics

Unique predictor/strong relationship—average r for decoding was .5 indicating it accounts for 25% of the variation in decoding performance


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Alphabetic knowledge-subskills characteristics

  • Letter recognition

  • Knowledge of letter-names

  • Knowledge of letter-sound associations

  • Letter-writing ability

A B C


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Alphabetic knowledge-subskills characteristics

  • Although letter-name knowledge is + correlated to later reading achievement, evidence suggests letter-sound knowledge accounts for more variance in reading achievement and delays (McBride-Chang, 1999; Duncan & Seymour, 2000).

A B C


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Alphabetic knowledge-subskills characteristics

  • Research with typically sighted children shows letters and letter sounds should be taught at the same time to make the greatest contribution to reading (Whitehurst & Lonigan, 2001)

A B C


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Alphabet knowledge—what to do? characteristics

  • Involve children

    in actively exploring

    letters and sounds

    together

    • braillewriter

    • letters and words

      brailled on cards

    • braille labels around house


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Alphabet knowledge—what to do? characteristics

  • Find daily opportunities to involve the child in writing in braille, linking letters and letter sounds

    • shopping lists

    • notes/messages to family members

    • calendar

    • experience stories


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Alphabet knowledge—what to do? characteristics

  • Use household objects to create “alphabet boxes” and braille letter cards; play sorting and matching games that draw attention to beginning sounds and the corresponding braille letter


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Alphabet knowledge—what to do? characteristics

  • Share appropriate alphabet books that:

    • provide exposure to braille letters (such as Alphabet Scramble, from APH)

    • introduce beginning letter sounds with letters (such as Dr. Suess’s ABC’s)

      (books that depend too heavily upon pictures are less effective)


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Alphabet knowledge—what to do? characteristics

  • As you read-aloud occasionally point out familiar or key letters/sounds (print- or braille-referencing comments)


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Considerations/questions characteristics

In pairs, share some of your thoughts and questions about--

the role of alphabet knowledge, particularly letter/sound knowledge

for preschoolers who will be braille readers.


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Considerations/questions characteristics

  • Uncontracted braille may make more clear and explicit the relationship of how phonemes “map” on to letters (Ross, 2002).

  • Braille contractions that represent phonemes (ch, sh, th) may be more easily decoded than their print counterparts

  • Decoding words that include contractions of some common letter groups (ar ed en er in ing it ) may also be simpler


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Considerations/questions characteristics

  • in print, there are also many occasions where there is not a single clear way a sound (phoneme) maps onto a print letter

    • 26 print letters but more than 40 phonemes

    • those 40 phonemes are represented by some 250 different letters and combinations of letters


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Effectiveness of interventions characteristics

The wide range of confidence intervals (with the exception of the tighter range for phonological awareness) indicates that within a single category of intervention some interventions were much more effective than others (Dunst, Trivette, & Hamby, 2007)


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Effectiveness of interventions characteristics

Some of the most interesting analyses lie ahead as data is disentangled, to discover which characteristics of interventions were associated with greatest effectiveness . . .

Example: Reading aloud—interactive reading, print referencing techniques


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TVI— characteristics

Reading teacher

Early childhood educator

Braille transcriber

Tech guy

Scholar

Advisor/Coach

Cheerleader


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References characteristics

Baker, L., & Scher, D. (2002). Beginning readers' motivation for reading in relation to parental beliefs and home reading experiences. Reading Psychology, 23, 239-269.

Ball, E., & Blachman, B. (1991). Does phoneme awareness training make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 49-66.

Duncan, L. G. & Seymour, P.H.K. (2000). Socio-economic differences in foundation level literacy. British Journal of Psychology, 91, 145-166.

Dunst, C.J.. Trivette, C.M. & Hamby, D.W. (2007). Predictors of interventions associated with later literacy accomplishments. Center for Early Learning and Achievement CELLreviews, 1, 3.


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Gillon, G.T. (2004). characteristicsPhonological awareness: From research to practice. New York: The Guilford Press.

Gillon, G. T., & Young, A. A. (2002). The phonological-awareness skills of children who are blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 96, 38-49.

Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experiences of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Justice, L.M. & Ezell, H.K. (2004). Print referencing: An emergent literacy enhancement strategy and it’s clinical applications. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 35, 185-193.

Kuhl, P. (2002, June). Born to learn: Language, reading, and the brain of the child. Paper presented at the Early Learning Summit for the Northwest Region, Boise, ID.


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McBride-Chang, C. (1999). The ABCs of the ABCs: The development of letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, 285-308.

McGee, L. M., & Richgels, D. (2000). Literacy’s beginnings: Supporting young readers and writers (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Neuman, S. (2005, May). Developmentally appropriate early literacy instruction: Evidence-based solutions. Presentation at Institute #8 of the 50th Annual Convention of the International Reading Association, San Antonio, TX.

Whitehurst, G. J., & Lonigan, C. J. (2001). Emergent literacy: Development from prereaders to readers. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 11-42). New York: Guilford Press.


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The Pursuit of Literacy: development of letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. One Mom’s Story


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What I Feared development of letter-name and letter-sound knowledge.

  • Learning to read would be difficult for my son

  • I wouldn’t have access to appropriate materials

  • I wouldn’t be able to learn braille to help him


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What I Did development of letter-name and letter-sound knowledge.

  • Borrowed print/braille books from VIPS

  • Worked with a blind adult to understand the basics of braille


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What I Learned development of letter-name and letter-sound knowledge.

  • My attitude was critical to my son’s literacy.

  • Concept development was a critical issue.


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Books always made great presents! development of letter-name and letter-sound knowledge.


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A brailled birthday card development of letter-name and letter-sound knowledge.


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My son loved having a private library of his much as a sighted child. own braille books.


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How much as a sighted child.VIPS Promotes Early Literacy for Families of Young Visually Impaired Children


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1) VIPS has a lending library of print/braille books for VIPS families.

2) VIPS has offered braille classes over the years for VIPS families.


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3) VIPS families.VIPS produced the “Power At Your Fingertips: An Intro to Braille” video and handbook for use by parents, regular ed teachers, and others to gain an overview of the braille alphabet, braille usage, contractions, and writing tools.


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The VIPS “Getting In Touch with Reading Program” National Braille Press, signing up VIPS families to receive free book bags.


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The goals of National Braille Press, signing up VIPS families to receive free book bags.this program are to:

  • Promote early literacy;

  • Foster appreciation for braille;

  • Encourage use of the library.


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Offers free bags of books and materials to VIPS National Braille Press, signing up VIPS families to receive free book bags.families.


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The bags include: National Braille Press, signing up VIPS families to receive free book bags.

  • “On the Way to Literacy” Handbook for parents and teachers

  • Two “On the Way to Literacy” Storybooks

  • Two print/braille board books (“Good Night Moon” and” One,Two, Three,” by Sandra Boynton)


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Over 90% of parents have reported that using the materials in the book bag has helped them:

  • Enjoy books more with their child

  • Appreciate the importance of reading to their child

  • Read aloud more often to their child

  • Create literacy-rich environments at home for everyday activities


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  • Know sources for print/braille books in the book bag has helped them:

  • Feel more comfortable with braille

  • Appreciate the importance of parents learning about braille

  • Feel empowered to help their children with learning to read and with schoolwork when the time comes

  • However, there was no positive impact on library usage.



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  • The Intro to Braille workshop for VIPS parents: literacy:

    • 100% of participants rated the class, teachers, and materials as “Excellent.”

    • Parent comments included these statements: “I’m not afraid of Braille now,” “Thanks for making a daunting task less so,” and “I loved this class!”


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  • The “Touch of Early Literacy” Workshop literacy:

    • Attended by special educators, regular ed preschool teachers, child care staff, parents, and some APH staff

    • A day-long workshop held at APH

    • Bonnie presented results of NELP

    • Suzette talked about the implications of NELP results for early literacy for VI

    • Participants also toured APH and made 4 tactile books


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  • 100% of participants rated the workshop and materials as “Excellent” and said the workshop gave them a better understanding of:

    • Research on early literacy

    • Emergent literacy/how to nurture it

    • Concepts that children need for conventional literacy skills

    • How concept development for a blind child differs from a sighted child

    • How VI children use tactile pictures.


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[email protected] Parent University “Excellent” and said the workshop gave them a better understanding of:


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The goals of the program: “Excellent” and said the workshop gave them a better understanding of:

  • Provide parents of young visually impaired children with needed information

  • Provide parents with parent-to-parent support

  • Reach the 70-80% of parents who do not attend regularly scheduled VIPS events


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Two of the four courses that have been developed so far are particularly relevant here:

  • “Emergent Literacy”

  • “Power at Your Fingertips: Into to Braille,” based on the VIPS video of the same name


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“Emergent Literacy” particularly relevant here:


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Props for the course particularly relevant here:


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“Power At Your Fingertips” particularly relevant here:


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Props for the course particularly relevant here:


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