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Discovery & Settlement of the New World. Coach Crews – AP US History. Pre-Columbian Era. Hunter gatherers who crossed over the Bering Strait land bridge Over 15,000 years they spread across America population around 1500 CE: 100 million in Central and South America. Pre-Columbian Era.

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Discovery settlement of the new world

Discovery & Settlement of the New World

Coach Crews – AP US History

Pre columbian era
Pre-Columbian Era

  • Hunter gatherers who crossed over the Bering Strait land bridge

  • Over 15,000 years they spread across America

  • population around 1500 CE: 100 million in Central and South America

Pre columbian era1
Pre-Columbian Era

  • Agricultural revolution sparks innovation and establishment of permanent settlements

  • Religion centered around corn, the sun, and water due to their importance

  • Power and authority derived from control of resources

Pre columbian era2
Pre-Columbian Era

  • Mound Builders – ancestors of Creeks, Choctaws, & Natchez

    • Mounds served as territory or religious markers

  • Mississippian Culture – along Miss. River & Ohio Valley

    • Burial mounds, farming, fishing led to substantial dwellings

  • Pueblo people – Anasazi

    • Rio Grande valley, baked mud huts, terraced gardens

Pre columbian era3
Pre-Columbian Era

  • Northeastern United States

    • Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Mohawk

    • Farming led to accumulation of food surplus and population growth

  • “Three Sister” farming

    • High yield bean that grew on corn stalks w/ squash at base

    • Farmers were female, males were hunters, trade developed between hunters and farmers

Pre columbian era4
Pre-Columbian Era

  • Iroquois League of Five Nations

    • Largest military unification in east

  • Aztecs

    • Capital city: Tenochtitlan (present-day Mexico City)

    • Used military and diplomacy to conquer and form alliances

    • Other cultures paid tributes to the Aztecs

Pre columbian era5
Pre-Columbian Era

  • Incas

    • Empire covered 2,500 miles; present day Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina

    • Massive architecture: buildings and bridges

    • Largest empire by 1500 CE but allowed local groups to maintain sovereignty

    • Gave allegiance to Sapa Inca (believed to be descendent of sun-god)


  • Europeans knew little of the Americas (hence “New World”)

  • Scandinavians explored Newfoundland in 1000 CE but colonies failed due to lack of nation-state support


  • Crusades in 11th-14th centuries led to Muslim control of trade routes

    • Became expensive to travel to Asia

    • New route was sought for trade

  • Christopher Columbus born in Italy

  • Printing press led to proliferation of novels about Asia

    • Marco Polo wrote about his adventures to Asia

    • Inspired others to travel


  • Columbus became interested; pitched ideas to multiple countries but failed to gain support.

    • Spain supported him to help spread Christianity

    • Made many demands in the event he was susccessful

  • “Tierra, tierra”: land is spotted Oct 12, 1492

    • Called it San Salvador; thought he was in the East Indies and called natives Indians

    • Impressed the king and queen; funded more trips in later years

Cortes defeats the aztecs
Cortes Defeats the Aztecs

  • Conquistador: conqueror

  • Commissioned with expanding the Spanish empire into Mexico

  • Formed military alliances with Aztec enemies

  • Held Montezuma captive and ruled empire through him

  • Guns, swords, etc impressed and frightened Aztecs

Cortes defeats the aztecs1
Cortes Defeats the Aztecs

  • 1520 CE – Aztec people fight back; rebellion is crushed by Cortes

  • Tenochtitlan was destroyed, Christian churches built in place of temples.

  • Francisco Pizzaro conquered the Incas in Peru and Spain took control of most of Central and South America


  • Manorial system declined and cities became the center of commerce in Europe

  • Printed documents replaced oral agreements; middle class became more business savvy

  • Mercantilism – nation’s strength is dependent on wealth

    • Leads to overseas exploration


  • New inventions made exploration possible

    • Compass, Astrolabe, Cross staff, Quadrant, Chip board, Hourglass

  • New ship building techniques

    • Caravel – fast merchant ships

    • Carrack – larger supply ships

    • Spanish galleon – used to carry gold; heavily armored

Ride of nation states exchanges
Ride of Nation States & Exchanges

  • Nations formed around people with common languages, cultures, histories, etc.

  • Citizens paid taxes for protection and growth of commerce

  • Columbian exchange – introduction of new ideas, products, diseases between Europe and New World

    • Led to 90% destruction of Native population.