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563.12.1 Automated Identification. Anh Nguyen University of Illinois Fall 2007. Agenda. Identification Automated Identification Applications Technologies Patient Identification My research project. 1. Identification.

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563 12 1 automated identification

563.12.1 Automated Identification

Anh Nguyen

University of Illinois

Fall 2007

agenda
Agenda
  • Identification
  • Automated Identification
    • Applications
    • Technologies
  • Patient Identification
  • My research project
1 identification
1. Identification
  • “The function of identificationis to map a known quantity to an unknown entity so as to make it known. The known quantity is called the identifier (or ID) and the unknown entity is what needs identification...” – Wiki
  • No guarantee of provenance or right mapping.
need and concern
Need and concern
  • Why Identification:
    • In many cases it is a required part of the workflow.
    • Build up profile (better shopping experience).
    • In security:
      • Authorization = Identification & Authentication + Assigning Privilege(s).(Identity Crisis: How Identification Is Overused and Misunderstood - Jim Harper - debate at Techliberation)
  • Security concerns according to CIA model:
      • Confidentiality: Might not want outside parties to learn your ID (SSN)
      • Integrity: of ID transferred.
      • Availability: the ID is ready when needed.
2 automated identification aid
2. Automated Identification (AID)
  • The process is done automatically, less human interventions.
    • To save times, increase productivity
    • To operate in harsh environment where it is harmful for human
  • Either replace traditional identification procedure to provide more seamless workflow, or bring new applications:
    • Commercial: Product identification, Supply chain & Logistics, E-Commerce.
    • Healthcare: Equipment tracking/ Patient Identification (later)
    • Transportation: E-Tickets
    • Others: Animal Tracking, Vehicle / People Identification
aid applications domino
AID Applications - Domino
  • Microsoft touch screen computing & domino technology

http://www.news.com/1606-2-6186146.html

aid technologies barcode
AID Technologies - Barcode
  • Printing ID in a way which is machine readable. Information can be expressed via different symbologies.
  • History: developed in 1948, commercial use 1966,

not commercially successful until the 1980s.

  • Recent developments: 2D Barcode / stacked barcode, Semacode.
  • Characteristics: cheap, short/long operating range, line of sight, low data rate.
  • Current uses: Groceries – UPC, Books – ISBN, drugs

Barcode, Semacode, UPC, ISBN – Wikipedia

magnetic stripe card
Magnetic Stripe Card
  • Storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material, as in video tape.
  • Sticking a piece of magnetic tape to a plastic card base.
  • Characteristics: cheap, higher data rate, near operating range, inconvenient (operation + reliability), low coercivity card easily damaged.
  • Highly standardized.
  • Current uses: ID cards (UID), Credit & Debit Cards, Subway and Bus Card.
smart card
Smart Card
  • Adding processing power: any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits which can process information.
  • Contact, contactless. Contactless and RFID.
  • Characteristics: has processing power, often come with tamper resistant feature, short operating range (ISO 14443 – 10cm, ISO 15693 – 50cm), more expensive.
  • Current uses: Mobile phone SIM, ATM Cards, contactless CC/DC, smart driver licenses.

RFID Vs Contactless Smart cards – An unending debate - Parul Oswal – 2006

biometrics
Biometrics
  • Uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. (but must be unique)
  • Characteristics: convenient / inconvenient, not very reliable (collision, effect of aging), usually more expensive.
  • Current uses: Personal laptops, digital IDs, ePassport (US, Brazil, Germany).
  • Concerns: once compromised it is compromised for life, danger to owner.

Biometrics - Wikipedia

slide11
RFID
  • Using radio frequency to transfer identifier.
  • Characteristics: very flexible (HF/LF/UHF, active/passive, implantable..), convenient, does not require line of sight.
  • Concerns: privacy, cancer (implantable tags).
  • Emerging market: DoD and Wal-Mart’s mandate, Prescription Drug Marketing Act (PMDA) - pharmaceutical supply chain (pedigree system by Dec 2006 – FDA), China national ID card, Qatar National Identification Project...
3 patient identification
3. Patient Identification
  • Current practice
    • Use text/color wristband
    • Use barcode wristband (ex: University of Wisconsin Hospital – 2004)
    • Use RFID wristband (ex: Bangkok Hospital – 2006, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital - 2007)
need to improve
Need to Improve
  • Patient misidentification is identified as a root cause of many errors: adverse drugs event, wrong invasive surgical operations...
  • Study by FDA shows that adverse drug events (ADEs) range from 2.4 percent to 6.5 percent per facility, with a mean rate of 4.3 percent – about 770,000 adverse events in the U.S. each year, $1.7 billion cost – Zebra white paper.
  • Joint Commission – JCAHO - listed “improving patient identification accuracy” as the first of its National Patient Safety Goals introduced in 2003, and this continues to be an accreditation requirement from 2004 to 2008.
  • WHO and JCAHO encourage the use of at least two identifiers.

(*3)

The Wrong Patient - Mark R. Chassin – 2002, Patient Identification - WHO Press - 2007

applications
Applications
  • Combine it with automated medication administration systems. U of Wisconsin Hospital reduced medication administration error by 87%.
  • Blood Administration
  • Sample / Treatment Management (to prevent unnecessary procedures)
  • Automated Billing
  • Patient tracking (babies, sleepwalker)
technology trade off
Technology Trade-off
  • Regulations (FDA, FCC compliance; EU Directive – CE mark)
  • Reliability
  • Privacy concerns
  • Convenience.
  • Cost for hospital.
  • Cost for patient. (not a big issue)
  • (*4)
barcode magnetic stripe smart card
Barcode, Magnetic Stripe, Smart Card
  • Barcode:
    • Advantage: conform to regulation, proven reliability, cheap
    • Disadvantage: inconvenient, limited applications, low capacity, not re-writable.
  • Magnetic Stripe
    • Advantage: conform to regulation, acceptable reliability, cheap, higher capacity.
    • Disadvantage: inconvenient, limited applications, not easily re-writable
  • Smart card
    • Advantage: conform to regulation, high reliability, high capacity, flexible (contact/contactless, rewritable/not), computation & security features.
    • Disadvantage: more expensive, limited applications (range).
rfid biometrics
RFID, Biometrics
  • RFID
    • Advantage: higher capacity, more applications, convenient, flexible (long/short range, re-writable/not, passive/active)
    • Disadvantage: regulation conformation, reliability (metal & liquid), privacy concerns (more engineering researches), more expensive.
  • Biometrics
    • Advantage: conform to regulation, convenient, no extra cost for patient.
    • Disadvantage: limited applications, no extra information, most expensive (for hospital), reliability improvement.

http://www.pdcorp.com/healthcare/case-study-chang-gung-hospital.html

my research
My research
  • Working with Ayesha:
  • “To design, implement and verify a system that will enable clinicians to gather, verify and store medical device reading in an automated fashion”

Medical Device

reading

(Nurse ID, Patient ID, reading)

Ser-ver

Patient ID

Nurse info, patient info, human readable reading (*)

Yes/ No

Patient

(*)

Yes/No

Nurse ID

Nurse

https://agora.cs.uiuc.edu/display/cs598cag/Automated+Medical+Data+Acquisition

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Automated Identification is very useful.
  • RFID is an emerging technology.
  • Patient Identification need to be improved. And could be done using AID.
  • Each AID technology has its own advantage and disadvantage.
  • More researches to prove/improve reliability of RFID and Biometrics, design so that RFID will conform with EMC requirements.
references
References
  • Identity Crisis: How Identification Is Overused and Misunderstood - Jim Harper - 2006
  • www.rfidjournal.com
  • www.rfidupdate.com
  • Patient Identification - Patient Safety Solutions - volume 1, solution 2, May 2007 - WHO Press
  • Patient identification - a crucial aspect of patient safety - patient Safety First
  • The Wrong Patient - Mark R. Chassin, MD, MPP, MPH, and Elise C. Becher, MD, MA* - 4 June 2002 | Volume 136 Issue 11 | 826-833
  • It\'s All in the Wrist: Improving Patient Safety with Bar Code Wristbands – Zebra – 2006
  • A wearable device for a fully automated in-hospital staff and patient identification - M. Cavalleri, R. Morstabilini, G. Reni – 2004
  • Interoperability Issues regarding Patient Identification in Europe - C. Quantin et al - IEEE EMBS - 2007
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