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The Science of Residency Determinations 2005 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Science of Residency Determinations 2005. Carl N. Friedman Student Support Services NYS Education Department. When his theory was questioned, Einstein replied, only half in jest, “the facts are wrong.” Albert Einstein.

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The Science of Residency Determinations 2005

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The Science of

Residency Determinations

2005

Carl N. Friedman

Student Support Services

NYS Education Department

When his theory was questioned, Einstein replied, only half in jest, “the facts are wrong.” Albert Einstein

We have to live today by what truth we can get today and be ready tomorrow to call it falsehood. William James

It requires a very unusual mind to make an analysis of the obvious. Alfred North Whitehead


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LEGAL BASIS FOR MAKING RESIDENCY DETERMINATIONS

No Child Left Behind – School Choice – SINIs without progress – Persistently Dangerous

Stewart H. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act 42 USC 11431 et. seq.

Federal Law

Education Law 3202 – Entitlement

Education Law 3203 – Property Intersected…

Education Law 3209 – Education of Homeless Children

State Law

100.2(x)

100.2(y)

Education Commissioner’s Regulations

Judicial Decisions of the Commissioner of Education or Court Decisions

  • Catlin v. Sobol - Appellate Division of NYS Supreme Court 4/4/91 Opn 141 Misc 2d 169 OR 38 Ed. Dept. Rep.____ Dec. #14005

  • Plyler v. Doe – 457 U.S. 202 (1982)


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NYSED Websites for Legal Information

http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/sss/Attendance/Matrix-AttLawsRegs.htm#RESIDENCY

http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/sss/Attendance/Matrix-AttLawsRegs.htm

http://www.counsel.nysed.gov/Decisions/volume31/d12562.htm

http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/deputy/nclb/parents/facts/

eng/eng-schoolchoice.htm


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No Child Left Behind

Title I Schools that fail to show adequate yearly progress in two consecutive years are considered in need of improvement. Parents may request a transfer to another in-district school. Similarly, victims of a violent criminal offense may also ask for a transfer within the district.

Who At NYSED Can Help?

  • Regional Representative for School Improvement - (518) 474-5923

  • http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/deputy/nclb/nclbhome.htm


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FEDERAL LAWS

Stewart H. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act

WHO AT NYSED CAN HELP?

  • Patricia McGuirk (518) 473-0295

  • State Technical Assistance Center (631) 232-4064

Every school district should have a “Homeless Liaison” who will facilitate hassle-free entrance to school. The law provides that the school allow the registrant into school immediately and then do the appropriate paperwork to determine residency.

The McKinney Act requires the State and the local districts to develop and revise policies to remove barriers to enrollment and retention.

Homeless students have the right to choose the schools

  • The district in which they are sheltered as a homeless person

  • The district which they used to attend prior to homelessness

  • Any school within the BOCES who has space for homeless children


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Education Law 3202

Education Law 3203

Education Law 3209

STATE LAWS

Educational Entitlement – is afforded to residents of the district over five and under twenty-one years of age who have not received a high school diploma.

Where a body of land is intersected by two school districts and is the location of an owner occupied single family dwelling, the family may choose which district they may send their children.

Defines a homeless person as:

  • Lacking a fixed regular night-time residence, or

  • Living in a shelter or temporary living accommodation run by government or agency for the residency of homeless youth

Defines school district choice as the district of origin, current location, or specific accommodations within a BOCES affiliate.

Defines – transportation benefits for persons in receipt of public assistance.


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100.2(y)

  • Establishes procedures following a denial of residency

Commissioner of Education

Regulations

100.2(x)

  • Establishes who may make residency determinations

  • Establishes rules concerning residency as a homeless person


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DECISIONS

Catlin v. Sobol 4/4/91 Overturned by State Supreme Court and then overturned again by Appellate Court

The Commissioner agreed with the district that the parents moved from the school district thus changing the residency thus the district should no longer have to pay the BOCES for special education services.

Plyer v. Doe – State of Texas passed a statute which prohibited the use of State funds for children who were not citizens of the U.S. Though the case concerned equal protection of the law the court found that the right to a free public education was based upon where a person lives not their alien status.


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IRRELEVANT FACTORS IN MAKING RESIDENCY DETERMINATIONS:

  • How soon the renovation will be done.

  • How many houses or businesses the applicant owns within the district.

  • Who the applicant knows on the school board.

  • The applicant’s alien status.

  • How much the applicant pays the district in school taxes.

  • How long the applicant's children went to that school.

  • The legality of the applicant’s rental agreement.

  • How long the applicant lived at their old address.

  • The importance of family members.

  • How much leaving will hurt the student.

The beginning of wisdom is the definition of terms.

Socrates (470-399 BC)


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RELEVANT FACTORS IN MAKING RESIDENCY DETERMINATIONS

  • Who is in charge (care and custody).

  • Is the place of residence the actual and only residence.

  • Where those who claim residency predominately sleep, reside, change clothes, use as base of operation, abode.

  • What verifiable evidence can be presented to support the claim of residence.


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WHAT PROVES RESIDENCY?

Does a record from Family Court attesting to the transfer of care and custody, tell you any more about residency than a birth certificate?

DISCUSSION ITEMS

  • How much evidence is needed

  • Copies vs. the document

  • Verifiable evidence

  • Unreasonable requests

  • District stance in illegal living accommodations


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WHAT CAN BE USED TO VERIFY RESIDENCY?

Eyewitness accounts (notarized)

  • From the applicant

  • From the Family relinquishing care and custody

  • Neighbors, the landlord, etc.

Supportive evidence linked to a place of residence

  • Voter registration

  • Forms associated with filing Income Tax

Supportive evidence:

  • Rental agreement

  • Driver’s license

  • Utility bills that link the resident to residence

  • Library card

  • Dog license


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WHO COMES TO SCHOOL

TO REGISTER A STUDENT?

Adults other than Parents

Parents

Emancipated youth


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PARENTAL EVIDENCE NEEDED

Two Parent Household

  • Relationship to the child

  • The student is:

  • Age appropriate

  • Has had immunizations

  • Lives in the district


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PARENTAL EVIDENCE NEEDED (continued)

Single Parent with Official Custody

  • Relationship to child

  • The student is age appropriate

  • Has had immunizations

  • Lives in the district

  • Other parent gets copies of school correspondence but has nothing to say about day-to-day school activities

  • If child has an IEP both parents are legally allowed to be involved in the child’s day-to-day operational activities

FERPA(Family Education and Rights to Privacy Act)

Family Policy Compliance Office

202-260-3887


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PARENTAL EVIDENCE NEEDED

(continued)

Child spends equal time living with both parents

For Online Citations:

Go to http://www.nysed.gov

And in the Google Search Engine type in “Commissioner’s Decisions”. You will be brought to a list of possible sites all dealing with Commissioner’s Decisions.


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PARENTAL EVIDENCE NEEDED (continued)

Single Parent With Care But No Official Custody (Gen. Ed.)

  • Relationship to child

  • The Student is age appropriate

  • Has had immunizations

  • Lives in the district

  • Other parent provides an affidavit of approval of other parent taking the lead

  • Other parent gets copies of school correspondence but has nothing to say about day-to-day activity

  • If the child has an IEP both parents are legally allowed to be involved in the child’s day-to-day operational activities.


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NON-PARENTAL EVIDENCE NEEDED

  • Relationship to child

  • The student is age appropriate

  • Has had immunizations

  • Lives in the district

PLUS

Either Or

Formal custody awarded by Family Court

Witnessed statement from the biological parent(s) and the new adult the minimums for care and custody


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NON-PARENTAL EVIDENCE NEEDED (continued)

Witnessed statement from the biological parent(s) and the new adult

New Adult

Biological Parent

  • They have abandoned being in charge of the child

  • They pay no costs to raise the child

  • The new family arrangement is for the foreseeable future

  • The reason for the new arrangement can be anything but hunting for a better school

  • They are in charge of all things

  • They pay all costs to raise the child

  • The new family arrangement is for the foreseeable future

  • The reason for the new arrangement can be anything but hunting for a better school


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EMANCIPATED YOUTH EVIDENCE NEEDED

  • A person becomes emancipated by the act of separating themselves from their parent(s) and by not accepting financial support from their parent(s)

  • A person cannot go to an office, an agency or a court to be designated as emancipated

  • Do all students become emancipated upon their 18th birthday? (No, read # 1 and #2 !)

  • How can a person prove they are emancipated? (This really shouldn’t be that hard, read #1 !)


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EMANCIPATED YOUTH EVIDENCE NEEDED (continued)

Irrelevant Factors in residency determinations for emancipated youth?

  • How loud or how long dad/mom complains that the school is breaking up their family

  • The student’s means of support is as a freeloader

Relevant Factors in registering an emancipated youth?

  • Evidence that the student is not financed by the parent away from home

  • Evidence that the student doesn’t live home

  • Evidence of the student applicant’s age, immunization

  • Evidence that the applicant lives within the school district


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WHAT ARE SCHOOLS REQUIRED TO DO WHEN THE RESIDENCY DETERMINATION IS NEGATIVE?

Commissioner’s Regulation 100.2(x) – where the board of education or its designee determines that the child is neither a resident nor entitled to attend the schools of the district they must

  • Send a written notice of the determination to the applicant within two days of making it;

  • Written notice must include:

  • Basis for the determination

  • Date of exclusion from the district (if applicable)

  • Statement about the right to appeal to the Commissioner for 30 days.

Instructions for making an appeal to the Commissioner of Education is available at www.counsel.nysed.gov


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310 Appeals

Rules:

  • Those making a petition must be at least 18 years of age

  • If the person filing for relief from damages is less than 18 years of age, they may seek the assistance of an older person who may file for them

  • An appeal must be filed within 30 days of the decision of the action being appealed

  • The person filing the petition must have exhausted all means of resolving the issue locally before filing

  • A petitioner may request a stay of the school district’s action to deny the enrollment of the student

  • You don’t have to be an attorney to make an appeal but to win it you must provide evidence concerning why your argument should prevail.


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BOARD OF EDUCATION POLICY CONCERNING NON-RESIDENTS

  • A board has the right to accept all non-residents without charge

  • A board has the right to accept all non-residents and to charge a formula-driven tuition

  • A board of education can refuse to take nonresident students

  • The board or its designee cannot make a determination based upon:

  • The disciplinary history of the student applicant

  • The cost of programming (special education)

  • The board may elect to adopt a policy that denies entrance to the schools of the district while the student is under the penalty of another school district.

  • The board of education cannot rid itself of an undesirable non-resident student. They are entitled to the same protections as resident students.

  • A board of education may hire a private detective to provide evidence concerning non-residency.


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SUMMER SCHOOL

  • A school district that operates a summer school may not deny their own residents free access to their summer school programs based solely upon residency. This applies equally to residents who send their children to public or non-public schools

  • Districts operating summer schools may deny access to nonresident students

  • Residency determinations are established using the same criteria as regular school

  • Districts operating summer schools may accept nonresidents on a tuition basis, who have permission to attend from their home school principal


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SOME WORKING GUIDANCE

  • If you need to call Student Education and Visitors Information System (SEVIS) for assistance, you’re already too late!

  • Students transferring from another school district with F1, J1 or M1 visas are allowed in the district based upon local non-resident policy. Use Plyler v. Doe 457 U.S. 202 (1982). They must be charged non-resident tuition if the school accepts them as non-resident students. This status must not exceed 12 months.

  • Students entering the country with an F1, J1 or M1 status must present an I-20 at the port of entry or they will be turned away. Only SEVIS approved schools or agencies may issue I-20s.

  • Students transferring from another district without visas fall under Plyler v. Doe, their alien status has nothing to do with their residency.

  • Transfer within a district is possible under NCLB


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Comprehensive Attendance Policy

CR 104.1

School Enrollment Process

Enrollment at School

  • Age

  • Immunization

  • Care & Custody

  • Residency

  • Attendance Roll Book

  • Class Roll Book

  • Removal from the Roll Book

  • 20 day drop

  • Transfer

  • Destination unknown


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Carl N. Friedman

Student Support Services

NYS Education Department

Room 318-M EB

Albany, New York 12234

PHONE: 518-486-6090

FAX: 518-474-8299

EMAIL: [email protected]

WEB SITE:

http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/sss/Attendance/Matrix-AttLawsRegs.htm


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