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Lecture Outline. Types of stereotypes Assumptions of stereotypes Definition of stereotypes Measurement of stereotypes Stereotypes: inaccurate, exaggerated, and resistant to change?. Stereotypes. Working definition: Generalized beliefs about a social group attributes behaviors

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Lecture outline
Lecture Outline

Types of stereotypes

Assumptions of stereotypes

Definition of stereotypes

Measurement of stereotypes

Stereotypes: inaccurate, exaggerated, and resistant to change?


Stereotypes
Stereotypes

  • Working definition:

    Generalized beliefs

    about a social group

    attributes behaviors

    social roles

(nurturing)

(take care of children)

(homemakers)


Types of stereotypes
Types of Stereotypes

  • Cultural stereotypes

    Beliefs about a group that

    are endorsed by society at large


Cultural stereotypes
Cultural Stereotypes

  • Across 1200 commercials women were portrayed most often as….

    • Domestics

    • Dependent on men

    • Submissive

    • Sex objects

    • Stupid

    • Superwomen


Types of stereotypes1
Types of Stereotypes

  • Personal (individual) stereotypes

    One person’s beliefs

    about a group


Cultural personal stereotypes
Cultural & Personal Stereotypes

  • Sometimes they overlap:

    Society portrays New Yorkers as loud, and Mary thinks they are loud too

  • Sometimes they don’t overlap:

    Society portrays Librarians as spinsters, but Mary doesn’t think they are


Consensual stereotypes
Consensual Stereotypes

Definition:

Extent to which people agree on the content of a stereotype

High consensus = high agreement


Consensual stereotypes1
Consensual Stereotypes

Personal stereotypes

  • Sometimes consensual: (many people may believe that New Yorkers are loud)

  • Sometimes not consensual: (Mary believes lawyers are short, but nobody else does


Assumptions of stereotypes
Assumptions of Stereotypes

Stereotypes have been characterized in three ways

1. Inaccurate

2. Exaggerations

3. Resistant to change


Stereotype inaccuracy
Stereotype Inaccuracy

Stereotypes are inaccurate when they are at odds with empirical evidence

Armenian Study: La Pierre (1936)

Purpose: Examine whether ethnic stereotypes of Armenians are inaccurate


Armenian study la pierre 1936
Armenian StudyLa Pierre (1936)

Armenian stereotype:

  • dishonest

  • lying

  • deceitful

    Procedure:

  • Sampled credit ratings

  • Compared Armenian & non-Armenians


Armenian study la pierre 19361
Armenian StudyLa Pierre (1936)

Prediction: If Armenians really are dishonest, lying, and deceitful, then they should have worse credit ratings than non-Armenians


Armenian study la pierre 1936 percent of good fair and bad credit risk
Armenian StudyLa Pierre (1936)Percent of good, fair and bad credit risk


Armenian StudyLa Pierre (1936)

Armenian stereotype did NOT correspond to empirical evidence

The stereotype was inaccurate


Stereotype are Exaggerations

Stereotypes are exaggerations when differences between groups are thought to be larger than they really are


Stereotypes are Exaggerated

  • Perceived Heights of Men and Women

    Men = 5’11 Women = 5’5 (Diff = 6 in.)

  • Actual Heights of Men and Women

    Men = 5’10 Women = 5’6 (Diff = 4 in.)

  • Perceived differences are exaggerated


Stereotypes Resist Change

Stereotypes remain stable over time and across generations


Are stereotypes inherently inaccurate, always exaggerated, and highly resistant to change?

No.

Stereotypes

have been stereotyped!!


Definitions of and highly resistant to change? Stereotypes

For most of the 20th Century researchers did not have a good, clear definition of the term “stereotype”


Definitions of and highly resistant to change? Stereotypes

Sampled the literature to identify how stereotypes were defined.

This is what they found……….


Definitions of and highly resistant to change? Stereotypes

Stereotypes had been

defined in six different ways!!


1. Generalized Beliefs and highly resistant to change?

Stereotyping may be defined as the tendency to attribute generalized and simplified characteristics to groups of people in the form of verbal labels, and to act towards the members of those groups in terms of those labels (Vinacke, 1949, p. 265).


2. Categories or Concepts and highly resistant to change?

A stereotype is commonly thought of as involving a categorical response--i.e., membership is sufficient to evoke the judgment that the stimulus person possesses all of the attributes belonging to that category (Secord, 1959, p. 309).


3. Incorrectly Learned and highly resistant to change?

Unlike other generalizations stereotypes are based not on an inductive collection of data, but on hearsay, rumor, and anecdotes--in short, on evidence which is insufficient to justify the generalization (Klineberg, 1951 p. 505).


4. Exaggerations and highly resistant to change?

A stereotype is an exaggerated belief associated with a category (Allport, 1958, p. 187).


5. Inaccurate and highly resistant to change?

A stereotype is a fixed impression, which conforms very little to the fact it pretends to represent, and results from our defining first and observing second (Katz and Braly, 1935, p. 181).


6. Rigid and and highly resistant to change? Resistant to Change

Stereotypy...the disposition to think in rigid categories (Adorno et al., 1950, p. 228).


YIKES! and highly resistant to change?

What sense can one

make of all that?

Field lacking formal, consistent and clear definition of the term “stereotype”


Ashmore & Del Boca (1981) and highly resistant to change?

Offered A Formal Definition

“A set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a

group of people”


Ashmore & and highly resistant to change? Del Boca (1981)

Limitation:

Lots of attributes describe members of social groups, but they are not part of the stereotype


WOMEN and highly resistant to change?

According to sex stereotypes, women are…....

nurturing

take care of children

homemakers

But women also……..

have two arms

eat food

have friends


Question and highly resistant to change? : Why aren’t those attributes in the stereotype of women?


Answer and highly resistant to change? : Because they don’t distinguish women from other groups.

We will return to this point, but most researchers use Ashmore & Del Boca’s definition.


Measurement of Stereotypes and highly resistant to change?

Three common procedures:

1. Adjective checklist

2. Rating scale

3. Free responses


Adjective Checklists and highly resistant to change?

Participants are given list of predetermined attributes and select those that are most typical of group


Adjective Checklists and highly resistant to change?

1st way that stereotypes were measured

Princeton Trilogy (Study 1)

Katz and Braly (1933)

  • Sampled 100 Princeton University students (all male, all white)

  • Used adjective checklist procedure to identify stereotypes of 10 ethnic and national groups


Princeton Trilogy (Study 1) and highly resistant to change? Katz and Braly (1933)

The 10 groups

Germans Jews

Italians Americans

African Americans Chinese

Irish Japanese

English Turks


Princeton Trilogy (Study 1) and highly resistant to change? Katz and Braly (1933)

Procedure:

1. Participants given list of 84 traits

2. Participants selected the 5 that were most typical of each group (5 traits per group)


Princeton Trilogy (Study 1) and highly resistant to change? Katz and Braly (1933)

How content was assessed:

The 10 traits that were selected most often


Results content

African Americans and highly resistant to change?

Percent

Trait endorsed

Superstitious 84%

Lazy 75%

Happy-go-lucky 38%

Ignorant 38%

Musical 26%

Jews

Percent

Trait endorsed

Shrewd 79%

Mercenary 49%

Industrious 48%

Grasping 34%

Intelligent 29%

Results: Content


Results content1

Irish and highly resistant to change?

Percent

Trait endorsed

Pugnacious 45%

Quick tempered 39%

Witty 38%

Honest 32%

Very religious 29%

Americans

Percent

Trait endorsed

Industrious 49%

Intelligent 48%

Materialistic 33%

Ambitious 33%

Progressive 27%

Results: Content


Results content2

Irish and highly resistant to change?

Percent

Trait endorsed

Pugnacious 45%

Quick tempered 39%

Witty 38%

Honest 32%

Very religious 29%

Americans

Percent

Trait endorsed

Industrious 49%

Intelligent 48%

Materialistic 33%

Ambitious 33%

Progressive 27%

Results: Content


Results content3

Italians and highly resistant to change?

Percent

Trait endorsed

Artistic 53%

Impulsive 44%

Passionate 37%

Quick tempered 35%

Musical 30%

Japanese

Percent

Trait endorsed

Intelligent 48%

Industrious 46%

Progressive 26%

Shrewd 23%

Sly 21%

Results: Content


How consensus was assessed
How consensus was assessed: and highly resistant to change?

Distinctiveness scores: Number of traits needed to account for 50% of responses

lower scores = more consensus


Results consensus
Results: Consensus and highly resistant to change?

Group Distinctiveness Score

African Americans 4.6 (most consensual)

Germans 5.0

Jews 5.5

Italians 6.9

English 7.0

Irish 8.5

Americans 8.8

Japanese 10.9

Chinese 12.0

Turks 15.9 (least consensual)


Adjective checklists
Adjective Checklists and highly resistant to change?

Benefits:

  • Can include a lot of attributes

  • Easy to complete

    Drawback:

  • May omit central traits from list

  • List may become outdated


Rating Scales and highly resistant to change?

Participants given list of pre-determined attributes and asked to rate how much each describes the group

How warm-hearted are gay men?

1 2 3 4 5

not at all very


Rating Scales and highly resistant to change?

Benefits:

  • Can include a lot of attributes

  • Easy to complete

    Drawback:

  • May omit central traits from list

  • List may become outdated


Rating Scales and highly resistant to change?

One distinct advantage over Adjective Checklists:

More specific measurement

of the stereotype --

Responses are not “all or none”


Rating Scales and highly resistant to change?

Measurement specificity important because…….

Researchers can assess “stereotype strength”


Rating Scales and highly resistant to change?

Definition: Stereotype Strength

Extent to which the attributes

in a stereotype are thought

to characterize the group

Example……...


Example stereotype strength

Smithtown residents and highly resistant to change?

very upper class

very snobbish

very reclusive

Jonestown residents

slightly upper class

slightly snobbish

slightly reclusive

Example: Stereotype Strength


Stereotype strength
Stereotype Strength and highly resistant to change?

  • The content of the stereotypes are the same…………..BUT

  • Smithtown stereotype is stronger

    VERY characteristic of Smithtown

    SLIGHTLY characteristic of Jonestown


Content vs strength
Content vs. Strength and highly resistant to change?

  • Stereotype content: attributes contained in a stereotype

  • Stereotype strength: extent to which these attributes are thought to characterize a group


Stereotype strength1
Stereotype Strength and highly resistant to change?

Adjective Checklists cannot measure a stereotype’s strength

Rating scales can measure a stereotype’s strength


Free responses
Free Responses and highly resistant to change?

Participants asked to list the attributes that describe a social group

Example

Please list those attributes that you believe describe Germans


Free Responses and highly resistant to change?

Benefits:

  • Measures central traits

  • Don’t ever become outdated

    Drawbacks:

  • Incomplete responding

  • May not measure weakly endorsed attributes


Distinguishing features
Distinguishing Features and highly resistant to change?

  • Adjective checklists, rating scales, and free responses may indirectly assess the attributes that distinguish between groups

  • Only one measure does so directly


Diagnostic ratio
Diagnostic Ratio and highly resistant to change?

Participants given a list of attributes and asked to make two percentage estimates

1. % of group that has each attribute

2. % of reference group that has each attribute


Diagnostic ratio1
Diagnostic Ratio and highly resistant to change?

DR = % of group (with attribute)

% of reference (with attribute)


Diagnostic ratio2
Diagnostic Ratio and highly resistant to change?

When DR = 1 (or close to 1), attribute does not distinguish between groups

Example

Jon believes that……

99% of women have arms

99% of Americans have arms

DR = 99.9/99.9 =1


Diagnostic ratio3
Diagnostic Ratio and highly resistant to change?

When DR substantially greater than 1, attribute:

  • distinguishes between groups

  • is stereotypic

    Example: Jon believes that…….

    35% of women are nurturing

    20% of Americans are nurturing

    DR = 35/20 = 1.75


Diagnostic ratio4
Diagnostic Ratio and highly resistant to change?

When DR substantially less than 1, attribute:

  • distinguishes between groups

  • is counterstereotypic

    Example: Jon believes that…….

    10% of women are aggressive

    25% of Americans are aggressive

    DR = 10/25 = .40


Diagnostic ratio5
Diagnostic Ratio and highly resistant to change?

So, according to the DR measure, a stereotype is defined….

As set of beliefs about a group that distinguish that group from other groups in either a stereotypic way (DR > 1) or a counterstereotypic way (DR < 1).


Diagnostic ratio study mccauley stitt 1978
Diagnostic Ratio Study and highly resistant to change? McCauley & Stitt (1978)

Purpose:

1. Show utility of DR

2. Assess whether the stereotype of African Americans is inaccurate and exaggerated.


Diagnostic ratio study mccauley stitt 19781
Diagnostic Ratio Study and highly resistant to change? McCauley & Stitt (1978)

Participants:

Sampled five groups

  • High school students

  • College students

  • Union members

  • Church Choir

  • Social work students


Diagnostic ratio study mccauley stitt 19782
Diagnostic Ratio Study and highly resistant to change? McCauley & Stitt (1978)

Procedure:

Step 1: Participants estimated % of African Americans and % of Americans that had 7 attributes

DR = % of African American (with attribute)

% of Americans (with attribute)


7 Characteristics and highly resistant to change?

% completed HS

% that are illegitimate

% that were unemployed last month

% who have been victims of crimes

% on welfare

% w/4 or more children

% w/female heads of households


Diagnostic ratio study mccauley stitt 19783
Diagnostic Ratio Study and highly resistant to change? McCauley & Stitt (1978)

Procedure (continued):

Step 2: Obtained census information to serve as criteria for accuracy

Step 3: Transformed census information into DR scores


Diagnostic ratio study mccauley stitt 19784
Diagnostic Ratio Study and highly resistant to change? McCauley & Stitt (1978)

Main Findings

1. Content: People held stereotype of African Americans


Results diagnostic ratio study
Results: Diagnostic Ratio Study and highly resistant to change?

Attribute Criteria HS College Union Choir SW

HS .65 .68 .73 .67 .68 .60

Illegitimate 3.10 1.801.702.101.90 2.30

Unemployed 1.90 1.90 1.60 1.80 2.60 2.30

Victims 1.50 .83 1.802.00 1.50 2.30

Welfare 4.60 2.301.901.601.801.40

Kids 1.90 1.60 1.401.601.30 1.30

Female head 2.80 1.701.90 1.70 1.50 1.70

Green (italics): DR different from 1 (p < .05)

Black (no italics): DR not different from 1 (p > .05)

Most DR’s different from one (green):

People held stereotype of African Americans


Diagnostic ratio study mccauley stitt 19785
Diagnostic Ratio Study and highly resistant to change? McCauley & Stitt (1978)

Main Findings

2. (In)accuracy: African American stereotype both accurate and inaccurate


Results diagnostic ratio study1
Results: Diagnostic Ratio Study and highly resistant to change?

Attribute Criteria HS College Union Choir SW

HS .65 .68 .73 .67 .68 .60

Illegitimate 3.10 1.801.702.101.90 2.30

Unemployed 1.90 1.90 1.60 1.80 2.60 2.30

Victims 1.50 .83 1.802.00 1.50 2.30

Welfare 4.60 2.301.901.601.801.40

Kids 1.90 1.60 1.401.601.30 1.30

Female head 2.80 1.701.90 1.70 1.50 1.70

No underline = DR not different from criteria (p > .05)

Underline = DR different from criteria (p < .05)

Some DRs different from criteria (underlined),

Other DRs not different from criteria (not underlined):

African American stereotype was both inaccurate (underlined) and accurate (not underlined)


Diagnostic ratio study mccauley stitt 19786
Diagnostic Ratio Study and highly resistant to change? McCauley & Stitt (1978)

3. Exaggeration/Underestimation: Stereotypic attributes underestimated real differences


Results diagnostic ratio study2
Results: Diagnostic Ratio Study and highly resistant to change?

Attribute Criteria HS College Union Choir SW

HS .65 .68 .73 .67 .68 .60

Illegitimate 3.10 1.801.702.101.90 2.30

Unemployed 1.90 1.90 1.60 1.80 2.60 2.30

Victims 1.50 .83 1.802.00 1.50 2.30

Welfare 4.60 2.301.901.601.801.40

Kids 1.90 1.60 1.401.601.30 1.30

Female head 2.80 1.701.90 1.70 1.50 1.70

Underline = DR different from criteria (p < .05)

No underline = DR not different from criteria (p > .05)

When DRs different from criteria (underlined),

difference was smaller than criteria:

African American stereotype underestimated real differences. They did not exaggerate real differences


Princeton trilogy
Princeton Trilogy and highly resistant to change?

  • Study 1 (Katz & Braly, 1933)

  • Study 2 (Gilbert, 1951)

  • Study 3 (Karlins et al., 1969)

    Recent Replication/Extension

  • Madon et al. (2001)


Princeton trilogy1
Princeton Trilogy and highly resistant to change?

Limitation of the Princeton trilogy:

  • Never updated the attribute list

    Problem because……

    Outdated attribute list may omit current beliefs and underestimate change by leading people to endorse old, and therefore, similar stereotypes


Princeton trilogy replication madon et al 2001
Princeton Trilogy Replication and highly resistant to change? Madon et al. (2001)

Recent Replication:

Study 1: replicated Princeton trilogy

Study 2: updated the attribute list

Study 3: assessed changes in favorableness


Princeton trilogy replication study 1 madon et al 2001
Princeton Trilogy Replication: Study 1 and highly resistant to change? Madon et al. (2001)

Procedure:

1. Given original attribute list

2. For each group, selected the five most typical


Princeton trilogy replication study 1 madon et al 20011
Princeton Trilogy Replication: Study 1 and highly resistant to change? Madon et al. (2001)

Results:

Content: Only 1 (African American) of the 10 stereotypes changed significantly

This is consistent with idea that stereotypes are resistant to change


Princeton trilogy replication study 1 madon et al 20012
Princeton Trilogy Replication: Study 1 and highly resistant to change? Madon et al. (2001)

Results:

Consensus: Only 1 (African American) of the 10 stereotypes changed significantly

This too is consistent with idea that stereotypes are resistant to change


Outdated attribute list
Outdated Attribute List and highly resistant to change?

Study 1 showed little change

Could this be due to an

outdated attribute list?

Study 2 tested this by

updating the attribute list


Princeton Trilogy Replication: Study 2 and highly resistant to change? Madon et al. (2001)

Procedure:

1. Updated original attribute list w/322

new attributes (total = 406)

2. Rated extent to which each attribute described the groups


Princeton Trilogy Replication: Study 2 and highly resistant to change? Madon et al. (2001)

Results

Content: 9 of the 10 stereotypes changed significantly. Irish didn’t change

Consensus: 7 of the 10 stereotypes changed significantly. Irish, Jewish, Italian did not change


Princeton Trilogy Replication: Study 2 and highly resistant to change? Madon et al. (2001)

These results are NOT consistent with idea that stereotypes are resistant to change


Princeton Trilogy Replication: Study 3 and highly resistant to change? Madon et al. (2001)

Purpose:

Examine whether the stereotypes have changed in favorableness


Princeton Trilogy Replication: Study 3 and highly resistant to change? Madon et al. (2001)

Procedure:

Participants rated the favorableness of the 1933, 1951, 1969 and 1990s stereotypes


Princeton Trilogy Replication: Study 3 and highly resistant to change? Madon et al. (2001)

Results

More FavorableLess Favorable

African American American

Chinese English

Japanese German

Turkish

Italian

Irish

Jewish


Princeton Trilogy Replication: Study 3 and highly resistant to change? Madon et al. (2001)

Changes in favorableness do NOT support idea that stereotypes are resistant to change


Stereotypes are not inherently inaccurate and highly resistant to change? (Diagnostic Ratio Study: McCauley & Stitt, 1978)

Stereotypes are not always exaggerated (Diagnostic Ratio Study: McCauley & Stitt, 1978)

Stereotypes are not resistant to change (Princeton Trilogy Replication: Madon et al., 2001)


Why study stereotypes
Why Study Stereotypes? and highly resistant to change?

Stereotypes may create social problems

One way they can do this is through self-fulfilling prophecies


Self fulfilling prophecies
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and highly resistant to change?

Definition:

Self-fulfilling prophecies are false beliefs that lead to their own fulfillment


Three steps to a SFP: and highly resistant to change?

1. Perceiver holds false belief about target

2. Perceiver treats target in manner consistent with false belief

3. Target responds to this treatment in such a way as to confirm the originally false belief


Self fulfilling prophecies are not perceptual biases
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies are not Perceptual Biases and highly resistant to change?

Perceptual biases:

When a perceiver believes that a false belief has come true, when in fact it has not


Self fulfilling prophecies do not reflect predictive accuracy
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and highly resistant to change? Do Not Reflect Predictive Accuracy

Predictive Accuracy:

When a perceiver correctly predicts a target’s future behavior, but did not cause that behavior to occur

(I predict Jazz will win, and they do)


Stereotypes self fulfilling prophecies
Stereotypes & Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and highly resistant to change?

Merton (1948)

African Americans thought to be strike breakers

  • African Americans barred from unions

  • Had few job opportunities

  • Took any work that came along

  • Took strikers jobs

  • Confirmed stereotype


Attractiveness study snyder tanke bersheid 1978
Attractiveness Study and highly resistant to change? Snyder, Tanke, & Bersheid (1978)

Purpose:

Examine whether the attractiveness stereotype is self-fulfilling

Stereotype is that attractive people have all sorts of good attributes (e.g., intelligent, friendly, sociable)


Attractiveness study snyder tanke bersheid 19781
Attractiveness Study and highly resistant to change? Snyder, Tanke, & Bersheid (1978)

Participants:

  • 51 men and 51 women

  • men and women paired off

  • never saw one another

    Men = perceivers

    Women = targets


Attractiveness study snyder tanke bersheid 1978 procedure
Attractiveness Study and highly resistant to change? Snyder, Tanke, & Bersheid (1978)Procedure:

Interactions w/o nonverbal behavior

  • Biographical questionnaire for partner

  • Photo of male

  • Male got photo of his female partner

  • Male rated his partner on traits

  • Conversed over telephone (tape made)

  • Male rated his partner again


Attractiveness study snyder tanke bersheid 19782
Attractiveness Study and highly resistant to change? Snyder, Tanke, & Bersheid (1978)

Manipulation:

  • Attractive partner

  • Unattractive partner


Attractiveness study snyder tanke bersheid 19783
Attractiveness Study and highly resistant to change? Snyder, Tanke, & Bersheid (1978)

  • Judges listened to conversation

  • Judges rated male’s behavior

  • Judges rated female’s behavior


Attractiveness study snyder tanke bersheid 19784
Attractiveness Study and highly resistant to change? Snyder, Tanke, & Bersheid (1978)

Results:

  • Males judged warmer and nicer in attractive condition

  • Females judged warmer and friendlier in attractive condition


Attractiveness study snyder tanke bersheid 19785
Attractiveness Study and highly resistant to change? Snyder, Tanke, & Bersheid (1978)

Only possible cause of differences in behavior after conversation was due to the treatment they received…………...


Attractiveness study snyder tanke bersheid 19786
Attractiveness Study and highly resistant to change? Snyder, Tanke, & Bersheid (1978)

Specifically…….

The men were very warm and nice to the “beautiful” women

The “beautiful” women responded in kind.


Attractiveness study snyder tanke bersheid 19787
Attractiveness Study and highly resistant to change? Snyder, Tanke, & Bersheid (1978)

The men were not warm and not nice to the “unattractive” women

The “unattractive” women responded in kind.


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