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INFO 272. Qualitative Research Methods. Data Analysis: A Grounded Theory Approach. The Iterative Model. 1) research topic/questions. 2) ‘corpus construction’. 3) data gathering. Field work. 4) analysis. 4) more analysis. Desk work. 5) write-up. From Analysis to Write up.

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Data Analysis: A Grounded Theory Approach

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Info 272 qualitative research methods l.jpg

INFO 272. Qualitative Research Methods

Data Analysis: A Grounded Theory Approach


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The Iterative Model

1) research topic/questions

2) ‘corpus construction’

3) data gathering

Field work

4) analysis

4) more analysis

Desk work

5) write-up


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From Analysis to Write up

5) draft writing

4) memo-writing

Granularity

3) theoretical coding

2) focused coding

1) Initial coding


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Grounded Theory

  • Analytic codes and categories arise out of the data

  • Simultaneous involvement in data collection and analysis (or very rapid iteration)

  • ‘Sampling’ aimed toward theory construction

  • Lit review after analysis


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Coding…

  • …is attaching labels to segments of data that depict what each segment is about

  • …is the bones of your analysis

  • …forces you to interact with your data (again and again)


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Coding: Key concepts

  • Granularity varies

    • Word-by-word, line-by-line, incident-to-incident

    • observational data vs. interviews

  • Ideas, categories, concepts must ‘earn their way’ into your analysis

  • ‘in vivo’ codes (close attention to language)

  • Constant comparative method

  • Are provisional! (code quickly)


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What does coding do to data?

  • Condenses

  • Disaggregates


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  • Remain open

  • Stay close to the data

  • Keep codes simple and precise

  • Construct short codes

  • Preserve actions [gerunds – i.e. shifting, interpreting, avoiding, predicting]

  • Compare data with data

  • Move quickly through the data

1) Initial coding


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  • Take most frequent and analytically interesting codes from the initial coding

  • Tying emerging concepts to the data (verification process)

2) focused coding

1) Initial coding


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Timesavers and Shortcuts

  • Moving along quickly to ‘focused coding’

  • Do ‘initial’ coding on a selection of the data (the early data, the most rich material)

  • Software (for searching especially) – NVivo or even MS OneNote


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After Coding: Some Heuristics

  • Sorting and Diagramming

    • Concept charting

    • Flow diagrams

  • Lofland and Lofland and Charmaz have many suggestions


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Memo-Writing

  • Transitioning between codes and write up

  • Could be blog entries


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An Example


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Henry:If your original idea was – if the target group was women, the poor women, why weren’t these phones strictly earmarked for them?

Jenna:I don’t know cause there was someone I talked to who was talking about how great it was that 80% of village phone operators are women…

Henry: The operators were women but they were not the owners.

Henry:Here in Uganda the owners most of the owners were men actually 90% of the phones were owned by men…

Jenna:So they were making themselves small amounts, but big profits were going to the owners?...[women] were not the entrepreneurs?

Julius:And even men, men who bought them, women who had them as closest to being owners it’s their husbands who facilitated them.


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Diagramming

Phone Gifting and Sharing


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A Coding Exercise


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