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Distribution networks in Germany Lecture at the Universidad de Chile 20.04.2005 Prof.-Dr.-Ing. E. Handschin edmund.ha - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Distribution networks in Germany Lecture at the Universidad de Chile 20.04.2005 Prof.-Dr.-Ing. E. Handschin [email protected] Basic data of the German electricity network Decentralised power supply Supply reliability Communication networks for the power supply

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Slide1 l.jpg

Distribution networks in GermanyLecture at the Universidad de Chile

20.04.2005

Prof.-Dr.-Ing. E. [email protected]


Content l.jpg

Content


Basic data of the german electricity network l.jpg
Basic data of the German electricity network

German Extra-High Voltage Network

Control areas

1 EnBW Transportnetze AG

2 E.ON Netz GmbH

3 RWE Net AG

4 Vattenfall Europe Transmission GmbH


Cables and overhead lines l.jpg
Cables and overhead lines

age pattern of the equipment

age pattern of the cables


Distribution networks in germany l.jpg
Distribution networks in Germany

Electricity network operators

approx. 900 mains supply operators



Power capacity 2002 till 2030 l.jpg
Power capacity 2002 till 2030 month in € (Source VDEW)

Replacement of Investment

Water

Wind

Other thermal

Oil

Natural Gas

Hard Coal

Lignite

Uranium

?

installed power in Germany


Technologies of decs l.jpg
Technologies of DECS month in € (Source VDEW)

~

~

~

~

Decentralised

Energy Conversion

Systems

natural and bio-gas

regenerative

Gasmotor

Gasturbine

Stirlingmotor

Photovoltaic

Wind energy

Hydro

Fuel Cell

Microturbine

... 100 kW

... 2000 kW

.. 2000 kW

... 250 kW

... 200 kW

... 250 kW

... 2000 h/a

... 3000 h/a

... 5000 h/a

... 8000 h/a

... 8000 h/a

... 8000 h/a

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

AC

AC

AC

AC

AC



Contribution of the renewable energies to power generation 1990 2004 source bmu l.jpg
Contribution of the renewable energies to month in € (Source VDEW)power generation 1990 – 2004(source:BMU)

Hydropower

Wind power

Biomass

Photovoltaic

[TWh]

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2004

2003


Present structure of electric power systems l.jpg
Present Structure of Electric Power Systems month in € (Source VDEW)

Problems:

  • Flexibility of generation and distribution

  • Operating costs

  • Approval of projects

  • Supply quality

  • Developing countries

Large power plants

supply all customers

Power plants

110/220/380 kV

10/20 kV

0,4 kV

Household

Industry


Centralized decentralized electric power systems l.jpg
Centralized / Decentralized Electric Power Systems month in € (Source VDEW)

Advantages:

Dispersed generation

Energy storage

Power quality

+

Intelligent communication systems

+

Decentralised energy

management systems

=

Storage

Industry

Power

Quality

Household

Metering

Solar

Storage

110 kV

10/20 kV

Fuel Cell

Combined

cycle plant

The Electric Power

Network of the Future

0,4 kV

Wind


The distribution grid structure in comparison l.jpg
The Distribution Grid Structure in Comparison month in € (Source VDEW)

Today

~

WEC

10 kV

10 kV

0,4 kV

~

PV

~

PV

Tomorrow

Yesterday

~

10 kV

10 kV

WEC

10 kV

10 kV

Electricity

Heat/Cold

IT

Water

FC

~

0,4 kV

0,4 kV

~

~

~

PV

PV

FC

~

~

FC

FC

~

~

PV

FC


Need for action l.jpg
Need for Action month in € (Source VDEW)

Definition of supplementary

supply conditions

Technical

+ Economical

+ legal

= Integration

Integration of DG in the Distribution Network

+ Superposition of perturbations, in

particular for f > 2,5 kHz

+ Installed Protection must be re-designed

+ Liberalization

+ Ancillary Services

+ ...

Individual Integration

Fixed Integration

Spectral Network Impedance

Certification

Distribution Capacity

Network Protection


Extended connecting conditions spectral grid impedance i l.jpg
Extended connecting conditions month in € (Source VDEW)spectral grid impedance I

Grid impedance at PCC

1

h

UN

h

PCC

Z

1

h

ZN

h

UN

10 kV

0,4 kV

h

ZT

h

h

ZÜ1

ZÜ2

Transformer

h

Z = f ( ZN, ZT, ZI, ZÜ, x, t, h )

1

Cable / overhead line

CK

h

ZÜ4

System-capacities

Measurement at PCC

1

1

h

PCC

Z

PCC

Point of

Common Coupling

1

h

h

I M

UN

h

IV

h

h

ZI

I Um

Household supply connection with inverter, load and source of interference

External AC-Source


Extended connecting conditions spectral grid impedance l.jpg
Extended connecting conditions month in € (Source VDEW)spectral Grid impedance

Compatibility level

for U

Mathematical result

Impedance characteristic

curve at PCC

measurement

Individual

Compatibility level

Individual

compatibility level

Current characteristic

curve Inverter

Connection

Spectral Grid-impedance characteristic curve as basic connection condition


Voltage scheduling l.jpg
Voltage scheduling month in € (Source VDEW)

Usoll,UW= 10,6 kV

Usoll,UW= 10,2 kV

U= 10,9 kV

U= 10,6 kV

U= 9,7 kV

U= 9,4 kV

feeding:

P= 4,3 MW

Q= 2,1 MVar

load:

PL= 4,3 MW

QL= 2,1 MVar

  • Main operators are obliged to supply customers in the LV-grid with supply voltage in interval Un-10% < U< Un+ 10% (DIN IEC 38).

  • Voltage control for MV- and LV-grids takes place centrally at the power substation (PS).

  • Problems for voltage control in grids with distributing poles (dp) with high load and feeding

    • voltage decrease for the right distributing pole

    • voltage increase for the left distributing pole

load flow

voltage drop


Short circuit power l.jpg
Short circuit power month in € (Source VDEW)

MV-

unit

short-circuit power

high voltage bus

MV-

unit

G

G

G

G

  • Dimensioning of the dynamic short circuit power considers only the contribution of the feeding grid.

  • At the 100 % level of the dynamic strength determined by the feeding network increased risk in the direct vicinity of the substation.

G

G

G

G


Islanding l.jpg
Islanding month in € (Source VDEW)

Þ

Lost of the MV-Grid because of failures

or unbalanced Power

K01

K03

Failure

ONT

Disconnection

10 kV

Grid

Maintenance

10 kV / 0,4 kV

Disconnection

K02

K04

~

DG in grid coupled Mode

Consequences of islanding

in grid coupled operation

Islanding can occur

in grid coupled operation

Þ

NO zero voltage operation warranted

Þ

short-term feeding of short circuits

Þ

High thermal load of inverters and other

Þ

Lost of the LV-Grid at service entrance

Grid components

box because of failures

Þ

Voltage procrastination in case of

Þ

Operational disconnection at local grid

single-phase connection

Þ

transformer by the power company

Lost of the selective protection (error location)


System configuration l.jpg
System Configuration month in € (Source VDEW)


Powerline source http www its05 de html powerline html l.jpg
Powerline month in € (Source VDEW)Source: http://www.its05.de/html/powerline.html

Voltage inhouse


Distributed hierachical energy management system l.jpg
Distributed Hierachical Energy Management System month in € (Source VDEW)

visualization

coordination

visualization

visualization

coordination

coordination

visualization

visualization

coordination

coordination

MT3

FC3

PV3

FC: fuel cell

WT: wind turbine

PV: photovoltaic

MT: micro turbine

WT1

PV2

PV1

MT2

WT2

FC1

MT1

FC2

WT3


Asymmetry l.jpg
Asymmetry month in € (Source VDEW)

  • Asymmetry

  • Unbalanced allocation of 1-phase loads, as well as the operation of 2-phase loads stress transformers and grids asymmetric.

  • Asymmetric operation of the grid can have different effects

  • unbalanced transformer load, -losses, -hum

  • Motors are running unbalanced

  • high losses 

  • short durability

  • abrasion of bearings

  • undefined reactive current compensation (Costs)


Maintenance and replacement strategies of distribution networks l.jpg

  • Summarising of single devices to classes, which are characterised by same lifetime-cycles

  • Statistical model of aging- and innovation processes

  • Evaluation of expected failure rates

  • Long-term prediction of maintenance and replacement

  • Comparison of different maintenance and replacement strategies

Maintenance and replacement strategies of distribution networks


Maintenance and renewal strategies of distribution networks l.jpg

Requirement characterised by same lifetime-cycles

Maintenance

Renewal

Modelling of aging processes

Maximum age

Aging process influenced by maintenance measures

Maintenance and replacement strategy

(chronological or budget)

History of maintenance and replacement of each class

Simulator routine

planned

unplanned

Failure rates

Replacement

Maintenance and renewal strategies of distribution networks


Influence of different replacement strategies l.jpg

Replacement and characterised by same lifetime-cycles

failure rate [1/a]

Period of rising replacement requirement

in case of strategy “2% per year”

failure rate > 2%

0,03

0,02

2% replacement per year

0,01

failure rate per year

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

9

10

8

Year

2,5% replacement per year

failure rate per year

Influence of different replacement strategies


Conclusions l.jpg
CONCLUSIONS characterised by same lifetime-cycles

  • Currently there is only limited experience with dispersed generation (DG) within the distribution network

  • A high penetration of dispersed generation requires detailed investigations, concentrating on protection devices and power quality; existing distribution networks were planned under different operating conditions

  • Increasing penetration of DG leads to new requirements of the network operation

  • Economic operation of virtual power plants needs a new energy management system (Multi agent real-time system)

  • The virtual power plant characterizes the future vision of distribution systems

  • Maintenance and replacement strategies have to be optimized to reduce distribution network costs


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