Reflection and mirrors
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Reflection and Mirrors. Seeing Yourself. Law of Reflection. The law of reflection states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. Definitions. Incident ray is the ray moving toward the surface Reflected ray is the ray moving from the surface

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Reflection and Mirrors

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Reflection and Mirrors

Seeing Yourself


Law of Reflection

The law of reflection states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.


Definitions

  • Incident ray is the ray moving toward the surface

  • Reflected ray is the ray moving from the surface

  • Normal is an imaginary line perpendicular to the surface


More Definitions

  • Angle of incidence is the angle between the incident ray and the normal

  • Angle of reflection is the angle between the reflected ray and the normal


Regular Reflection

Rays of light hit a smooth surface. The reflected rays bounce off the surface parallel to each other.


Diffuse Reflection

  • Rays of light hit a rough surface. The reflected rays are not parallel to each other when they bounce off the surface.


Images

  • An Image is the point where extended reflected rays of light intersect.

  • Real image—formed by converging light rays and can be displayed on a screen

  • Virtual Image—an image that can be seen by the observer but cannot be projected on a screen because light from the object does not actually come to a focus.


Plane Mirrors

  • Image is the same size as the object

  • Image is the same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front of the mirror.

  • The front and back of image of are reversed.

  • Virtual image.


Ray Diagrams

  • A ray diagram is a diagram which traces the path which light takes in order for a person to view a point on the image of an object. On the diagram, rays (lines with arrows) are drawn for the incident ray and the reflected ray.


Concave Mirrors

  • Concave mirrors are shaped like the inside of a spoon

  • Parallel rays of light are reflected towards a single point—the focal point

  • The real image is inverted and in front of the mirror.

  • The virtual image is erect and behind the mirror.


Image from a concave mirror depends on the placement of the object in relation to the mirror

http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=48


Convex Mirrors

  • A convex mirror is shaped like the outside bottom of a spoon.

  • Convex mirrors produce an erect virtual image behind the mirror.

  • Convex mirrors are used as rearview mirrors in cars and in stores to observe shoppers.


Spherical Aberration

  • Curved mirrors that are made from part of a sphere do not reflect all rays of light through the focal point.

  • Parabolic mirrors are used when a sharp focus is needed—they do not have spherical aberration.


The Mirror Equation

  • f is the focal length (distance from mirror to focal point)

  • do is the distance from the mirror to the object

  • di is the distance from the mirror to the image

  • The focal length of a curved mirror is ½ of the radius of curvature.


Magnification Equation

  • m is the magnification

  • Positive m represents an erect image

  • Negative m represents an inverted image

  • hi is the image height

  • h0 is the object height

  • di is the image distance

  • do is the object distance


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