New ideas chapter 24 i
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New Ideas - Chapter 24:i -. Adam Smith “Father of Capitalism”. author of Wealth of Nations advocated a policy of laissez-faire (“leave them alone”) - let natural forces of supply & demand to operate (no government interference!) - sellers/buyers act in own self-interest

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New ideas chapter 24 i

New Ideas- Chapter 24:i -


Adam smith father of capitalism

Adam Smith“Father of Capitalism”

  • author of Wealth of Nations

  • advocated a policy of laissez-faire (“leave them alone”)

    - let natural forces of supply & demand to operate (no government interference!)

    - sellers/buyers act in own self-interest

    - businesses compete to produce goods inexpensively (efficient producers will prosper, expand operations, hire more workers, etc.)


Thomas malthus

Thomas Malthus

  • author of An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)

  • poverty, famine, and misery unavoidable

    - population increasing faster than food supply


New ideas chapter 24 i

[Image source: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/lect/mod15.html]


David ricardo

David Ricardo

  • “iron law of wages” – rapid population growth leads to:

    - fierce competition for jobs

    - lower wages

    - higher unemployment

    Continual poverty inevitable!


New ideas chapter 24 i

Image source: http://courtneyannemurray.googlepages.com/historyofcapitlism]


The birth of economics the dismal science

The Birth of Economics,“the dismal science”

[Image source: http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/08/12/business/12view.1901.jpg]


Malthus ricardo

Malthus &Ricardo

  • believed in laissez-faire

  • thought the poor could help themselves by working hard, saving earnings, and having fewer children

    How accurate were the forecasts of Malthus and Ricardo? (Be prepared to explain!)


Evangelicals and reform

Evangelicals and Reform

[Image source: http://roger-williams.net/family_history/william_lee/lord_morpeth.jpg]


New ideas chapter 24 i

William Wilberforce got the British Parliament to outlaw the slave trade in 1807, and slavery throughout the empire in 1833.

[Image source: http://i.telegraph.co.uk/telegraph/multimedia/archive/01179/arts-graphics-2007_1179113a.jpg]]


Lord shaftesbury promoted laws limiting working hours for women and children

Lord Shaftesbury promoted laws limiting working hours for women and children.

[Image source: http://gerald-massey.org.uk/holyoake/images/lord_shaftesbury.jpg]


Utilitarian reformers

Utilitarian Reformers

[Image source: http://files.libertyfund.org/img/907//lf0353-01_1978v1_figure_023.jpg]


New ideas chapter 24 i

British philosopher Jeremy Bentham believed society should work for “the greatest happiness forthe greatest number” of citizens.

[Image source: http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/KrakowLectures/Law508/bentham.jpg]


Laws should be judged by

Laws should be judged by:

  • their usefulness;

  • whether they advance human happiness; and

  • reduced human misery

[Image source:

http://www.usefulwork.com/shark/justice.jpg]


New ideas chapter 24 i

Bentham’s follower, John Stuart Mill,called for the distribution of wealth more justly through taxing income.

[Image source:

http://www.comnet.ca/~pballan/milljs2.jpg]


New ideas chapter 24 i

[Image source: http://www.willamette.edu/~sbasu/poli212/Mill1_files/image055.png]


New ideas chapter 24 i

[Image source: http://media.photobucket.com/image/socialism/tomasutpen/album3/socialism4.jpg]


Socialism

Socialism

  • the belief that the means of production – capital, land, raw materials, and factories – should be owned and controlled by society, either directly or through governments


Robert owen a wealthy welsh manufacturer believed competition caused many of society s problems

Robert Owen, a wealthy Welsh manufacturer, believed competition caused manyof society’s problems.

[Image source: http://www.chorleyhistorysociety.co.uk/robert_owen.jpg]


Owen believed life would improve if cooperation replaced competition

Owen believed life would improve if cooperation replaced competition.

New Lanark, Scotland


Owen unsuccessfully attempted to apply his ideas in the united states in 1825

Owen unsuccessfully attempted to apply his ideas in the United States in 1825.


Prussian philosopher karl marx dismissed the ideas of early socialists as impractical

Prussian philosopher Karl Marx dismissed the ideas of early socialists as impractical.

[Image source:

http://www.communism.co.uk/karl-marx.jpg]


Marx attempted to provide a scientific basis for socialism

Marx attempted to provide a scientific basis for socialism.

[Image source: http://friedgreenonions.blogspot.com/2009/01/we-will-bury-you-khrushchev-prophesizes.html]


Due to his radical views marx lived most of his life in exile

Due to his radical views, Marx lived most of his life in exile.

[Image source: http://libcom.org/library/critique-of-the-gotha-program-karl-marx]


In 1844 marx met friedrich engels scion of a wealthy industrialist in paris

In 1844, Marx met Friedrich Engels, scion of a wealthy industrialist, in Paris.

[Image source:

http://forumfilosofia.files.wordpress.com/2007/08/edrich.jpg]


Marx and engels became lifelong collaborators

Marx and Engels became lifelong collaborators.

[Image source: http://mikeely.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/marx-engels_at_work_together.jpg]


New ideas chapter 24 i

Marx based his teachings on the German philosopher Hegel, who thought that the clash of ideas produced changes and new ideas (and new conflicts!).

[Image source:

https://eee.uci.edu/programs/humcore/images/Antigone/Georg_Hegel.png]


Hegel s triad

Hegel’s Triad

[Image source: http://philosophy.blogs.com/mc_philosophy/images/hegel_triad.jpg]


Marx believed history advanced through conflict and that economics was the major force for change

Marx believed history advanced through conflict, and that economics was the major force for change.

[Image source: http://barnsdale.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/class_warfare.jpg]


New ideas chapter 24 i

According to Marx, what emerged was a “class struggle” – the conflict between those who controlled production and those who did the work – which propelled history forward.

[Image source: http://www.worldsocialism.org/spgb/nov04/chartists%20storming%20westgate%20preston%201842.png]


Marx s stages of economic life

Marx’s stages of economic life:

People produce what they need

1. Primitive

Advent of tools make surpluses possible (people became exploitable)

2. Slavery

3. Feudal

4. Capitalist


In marx s view history was a struggle between the haves and have nots

In Marx’s view, history was a struggle between the “haves” and “have-nots”.

[Image source: http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1852/18th-brumaire/pics/barics2.gif]


New ideas chapter 24 i

[Image source: http://fc03.deviantart.net/fs44/f/2009/064/6/0/Karl_Marx__The_Prophet_by_Latuff2.jpg]


Marx believed the makers of goods the proletariat was the true productive class

Marx believed the makers of goods – the proletariat – was the true productive class.

[Image source: http://zetetics.us/images/worker.gif]


The bourgeoisie or middle class exploited the proletariat by owning the means of production

The bourgeoisie, or middle class, exploited the proletariat by owning the means of production.

[Image source: http://75.24.205.227/guenther-history/westernciv2/Nationalism%20Romanticism%20Realism%20Images.htm]


New ideas chapter 24 i

“Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!”

[Image source: http://www.popsiclesandgrenades.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/manifest-hope-workers-rights-poster.jpg]

The Communist Manifesto (1848)


New ideas chapter 24 i

[Image source: http://z.hubpages.com/u/757096_f260.jpg]


Marx developed his ideas further in the work das kapital

Marx developed his ideas further in the work Das Kapital.

[Image source: http://www.marxists.org/history/etol/writers/swabeck/1959/xx/capital.jpg]


New ideas chapter 24 i

[Image source: http://www.southtexascollege.edu/nilsson/4_GB_Internet_Activities/4_IA_HumanPopGrowth.html]


What is the message of this political cartoon and of the cartoons that follow

What is the message of this political cartoon, and of the cartoons that follow?

[Image source: http://www.marxists.org/subject/art/visual_arts/satire/marx/marx1.jpg]


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