Organic Chemistry
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Organic Chemistry. Chemistry of Carbon Compounds. Why so many Carbon compounds?! Group #_ 14 __________________ metal, nonmetal, metalloid bond type__ covalent__ __ Valance electrons__4__ Lewis Dot formula Bonding Capacity__4____. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. Triple Bond.

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Organic Chemistry

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Organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry

Chemistry of Carbon Compounds


Organic chemistry

Why so many Carbon compounds?!

Group #_14__________________

metal, nonmetal, metalloid

bond type__covalent____

Valance electrons__4__

Lewis Dot formula

Bonding Capacity__4____

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

Triple Bond

Double Bond

Single Bond


Organic chemistry

Bonding Capacity of H, O, N

N

O

H

3

2

1


Organic chemistry

Hmmm, I seem to remember something about that.......

METALS NONMETALS

Why covalent bonds?

Electronegativity:

·The ability to pull electrons away from another element

·elements in the NE part of the periodic table have stronger pull


Organic chemistry

Properties of Covalent Compounds

·Covalent compounds generally have much lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds.

·Covalent compounds don't conduct electricity in water.

·Covalent compounds aren't usually very soluble in water.

·Covalent compounds tend to be more flammable than ionic compounds.


Organic chemistry

H

H

H

H

C

C

H

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

H

H

H

C

H

C

H

H

H

Chemical Formulas (Molecular formulas)

CH4 methane

one pair of electrons

C2H6 ethane

Lewis Dot

Structural Formulas

each pair of electrons = one single bond


Organic chemistry

H

H

H

H

C C C

H

H

H

H

Condensed Structural Formula

Propane

C3H8

Chemical (molecular) Formula

Structural Formula

CH3CH2CH3

Condensed Structural Formula

same as structural just take away the lines!


Organic chemistry

TRY IT

C4H10


Organic chemistry

ANOTHER WAY

C6H14

count how many CH2's there are


Organic chemistry

HOMOLOGOUS SERIES

·a series of organic compounds with a similar general formula

·possessing similar chemical properties due to the presence of the same functional group, and

·shows a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in molecular size and mass


Organic chemistry

ALKANES

·straight-chain or branched-chain hydrocarbons in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single covalent bonds.

·"saturated"

·general formula is CnH2n+2 where "n" is the # of carbons

·end with the suffix " ane "


Organic chemistry

Naming Straight Chain Alkanes (CnH2n+2)

Prefix is determined by the number of carbon atoms in the chain:

Suffix is "ane"

meth C1CH4

eth C2C2H6

prop C3

but C4

pent C5

hex C6

hept C7

oct C8

non C9

dec C10


Organic chemistry

Naming Branched Alkanes

Functional Group

Functional groups are specific atoms, ions, or groups of atoms having consistent properties. A functional group makes up part of a larger molecule.

In branched alkanes the functional group in an "ALKYL" group

yl ending

methyl

ethyl

CH3

C2H5

one less Hydrogen!


Organic chemistry

3,4-dimethyl heptane


Organic chemistry

Naming Branched Chain Alkanes

http://www.ausetute.com.au/nambanes.html

· Name and number the longest carbon chain as for a straight chain alkane.

· Identify each of the branches (side-chains).

· Use the lowest number combinations for the branches (side-chains).

· Name each branch or side-chain (alkyl group) :

methyl CH3

ethyl C2H5

propyl C3H7

· For more than 1 of the same alkyl group use:

di = 2

tri = 3

tetra = 4

· Use commas between numbers, eg, 1,2 or 2,3

· Use hyphens between numbers and words, eg, 2-methyl or 2,3-dimethyl

· If there is more than 1 type of branch or side-chain, arrange their names alphabetically, ie, ethyl groups are named before methyl groups which are named before propyl groups


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