Organic Chemistry. Chemistry of Carbon Compounds. Why so many Carbon compounds?! Group #_ 14 __________________ metal, nonmetal, metalloid bond type__ covalent__ __ Valance electrons__4__ Lewis Dot formula Bonding Capacity__4____. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. Triple Bond.
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Chemistry of Carbon Compounds
Why so many Carbon compounds?!
metal, nonmetal, metalloid
Lewis Dot formula
Bonding Capacity of H, O, N
Hmmm, I seem to remember something about that.......
Why covalent bonds?
·The ability to pull electrons away from another element
·elements in the NE part of the periodic table have stronger pull
Properties of Covalent Compounds
·Covalent compounds generally have much lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds.
·Covalent compounds don't conduct electricity in water.
·Covalent compounds aren't usually very soluble in water.
·Covalent compounds tend to be more flammable than ionic compounds.
Chemical Formulas (Molecular formulas)
one pair of electrons
each pair of electrons = one single bond
C C C
Condensed Structural Formula
Chemical (molecular) Formula
Condensed Structural Formula
same as structural just take away the lines!
count how many CH2's there are
·a series of organic compounds with a similar general formula
·possessing similar chemical properties due to the presence of the same functional group, and
·shows a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in molecular size and mass
·straight-chain or branched-chain hydrocarbons in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single covalent bonds.
·general formula is CnH2n+2 where "n" is the # of carbons
·end with the suffix " ane "
Naming Straight Chain Alkanes (CnH2n+2)
Prefix is determined by the number of carbon atoms in the chain:
Suffix is "ane"
Naming Branched Alkanes
Functional groups are specific atoms, ions, or groups of atoms having consistent properties. A functional group makes up part of a larger molecule.
In branched alkanes the functional group in an "ALKYL" group
one less Hydrogen!
Naming Branched Chain Alkanes
· Name and number the longest carbon chain as for a straight chain alkane.
· Identify each of the branches (side-chains).
· Use the lowest number combinations for the branches (side-chains).
· Name each branch or side-chain (alkyl group) :
· For more than 1 of the same alkyl group use:
di = 2
tri = 3
tetra = 4
· Use commas between numbers, eg, 1,2 or 2,3
· Use hyphens between numbers and words, eg, 2-methyl or 2,3-dimethyl
· If there is more than 1 type of branch or side-chain, arrange their names alphabetically, ie, ethyl groups are named before methyl groups which are named before propyl groups