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Work in the 21 st Century Chapter 9. Attitudes, Emotions, & Work. Mel Curtis/Getty Images. Module 9.1: Job Satisfaction. Job satisfaction Positive attitude or emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job. Job Satisfaction – Brief History. Early period of job satisfaction research

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Work in the 21 st century chapter 9
Work in the 21st CenturyChapter 9

Attitudes, Emotions, & Work

Mel Curtis/Getty Images

Module 9 1 job satisfaction
Module 9.1: Job Satisfaction

  • Job satisfaction

    • Positive attitude or emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job

Job satisfaction brief history
Job Satisfaction – Brief History

  • Early period of job satisfaction research

    • Found both job-related & individual difference variables might influence job satisfaction

    • Hawthorne effect

      • Change in behavior or attitudes that was the simple result of increased attention

Measurement of job satisfaction overall vs facet satisfaction
Measurement of Job Satisfaction of Job SatisfactionOverall vs. Facet Satisfaction

  • Overall satisfaction

    • Results either from mathematically combining scores based on satisfaction or a single overall evaluative rating of the job

  • Facet satisfaction

    • Information related to specific elements of job satisfaction

  • Figure 9 3 faces scale
    Figure 9.3: of Job SatisfactionFaces Scale

    Satisfaction questionnaires
    Satisfaction Questionnaires of Job Satisfaction

    • Job Descriptive Index (JDI)

      • Assesses satisfaction with work itself, supervision, people, pay, & promotion

      • Heavily researched but tends to be lengthy

  • Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)

    • Calculates “extrinsic” & “intrinsic” satisfaction scores

  • Table 9 2 sample items from the jdi
    Table 9.2: of Job SatisfactionSample Items from the JDI

    Concept of commitment
    Concept of Commitment of Job Satisfaction

    Psychological & emotional attachment an individual feels to a relationship, organization, goal, or occupation


    Organizational commitment
    Organizational Commitment of Job Satisfaction

    Organizational commitment has 3 elements:

    (1) acceptance and belief in an organization’s values

    (2) a willingness to exert effort on behalf of the

    organization to help meet the goals of that organization

    (3) a strong desire to remain in the organization

    Forms of organizational commitment
    Forms of Organizational Commitment of Job Satisfaction

    • Affective commitment

      • Emotional attachment to an organization

    • Continuance commitment

      • Perceived cost of leaving the organization

    • Normative commitment

      • Obligation to remain in the organization

    Individual difference variables commitment
    Individual Difference of Job SatisfactionVariables & Commitment

    • Absenteeism & turnover can only be understood when considering multiple forms of commitment & multiple foundations for those commitments

    • Job embeddedness

    • Hobo syndrome

    Organizational identification
    Organizational Identification of Job Satisfaction

    • Organizational identification (OID)

      • process whereby individuals derive a feeling of pride and esteem from their association with an organization.

      • Individuals may also take pains to distance themselves from the organization for which they work—this would be called organizational disidentification.

    Figure 9 4 graphic scale of identification
    Figure 9.4: of Job SatisfactionGraphic Scale of Identification

    The chart is intended to

    assess your relationship

    with the organization

    (or company, branch,

    department, team) you

    belong to. Above you will

    find 7 rectangles. In

    each rectangle there are two

    circles. One represents you

    and the other one the unit

    you belong to. In each

    rectangle the circles

    overlap differently. In the

    first rectangle (number 1),

    they are totally separate

    and represent a situation

    in which you do not identify

    at all with your unit. In the

    last rectangle (number 7),

    the circles are totally

    overlapping and represent a

    situation in which you totally

    identify with the unit. Choose

    out of the seven rectangles

    the one that most highly

    represents the extent to

    which you identify with

    your unit.

    SOURCE: Shamir & Kark (2004).

    Figure 9 5 expanded model of identification
    Figure 9.5: of Job SatisfactionExpanded Model of Identification

    Employee engagement
    Employee of Job SatisfactionEngagement

    • Positive work-related state of mind that includes high levels of energy, enthusiasm, and identification with one’s work

    • Overlaps positively with job sat., org. commitment, and job involvement

    • But is distinct from these constructs and has important organizational implications (i.e., increased engagement on the part of workers is related to increased task and contextual performance)

    Module 9 2 moods emotions attitudes behavior
    Module 9.2: Moods, Emotions, Attitudes, & Behavior of Job Satisfaction

    • Alternative forms of work satisfaction

      • Progressive work satisfaction

      • Stabilized work satisfaction

      • Resigned work satisfaction

      • Pseudo-work satisfaction

      • Constructive work dissatisfaction

      • Fixated work dissatisfaction

    Alternative forms of satisfaction cont d
    Alternative Forms of Satisfaction (cont'd) of Job Satisfaction

    • Resigned work satisfaction & constructive work dissatisfaction are most salient for organizations

    • Those 2 dimensions are most appropriate to concentrate on in any attempts at organizational change

    Satisfaction vs mood vs emotion
    Satisfaction vs. Mood vs. Emotion of Job Satisfaction

    • Mood

      • Generalized feeling not identified with a particular stimulus & not sufficiently intense to interrupt ongoing thought processes

    • Emotion

      • Normally associated with specific events or occurrences that are intense enough to disrupt thought processes

    Figure 9 6 distinctions among emotions and related constructs
    Figure 9.6: Distinctions Among of Job SatisfactionEmotions and Related Constructs

    Figure 9 7 affect circumplex
    Figure 9.7: Affect Circumplex of Job Satisfaction

    Taxonomy of work related emotions
    Taxonomy of of Job SatisfactionWork-Related Emotions

    Emotion cont d
    Emotion (cont'd) of Job Satisfaction

    • Process emotions

      • Result from consideration of tasks one is currently doing

    • Prospective emotions

      • Result from consideration of tasks one anticipates doing

    • Retrospective emotions

      • Result from consideration of tasks one has already completed

    Dispositions affectivity
    Dispositions & Affectivity of Job Satisfaction

    • Negative affectivity (NA)

      • Often referred to as neuroticism

      • Individuals prone to experience diverse array of negative mood states

    • Positive affectivity (PA)

      • Often referred to as extraversion

      • Individuals prone to describe themselves as cheerful, enthusiastic, confident, active, & energetic

    • Personality characteristics likely to influence moods, but not necessarily discrete emotions

    Genetics job satisfaction
    Genetics & Job Satisfaction of Job Satisfaction

    • In a 1986 study, disposition in adolescence predicted job satisfaction as long as 50 years later

    • Additional research has been conducted in this controversial area, but considerably more research is necessary on the links between genetics and job satisfaction

    M. Freeman/PhotoLink/Getty Images

    Core evaluations
    Core Evaluations of Job Satisfaction

    • Assessments individuals make of their circumstances

    • Include self-esteem, self-efficacy, & LOC

    • Have effects on both job & life satisfaction

    Figure 9 8 elements of core evaluations
    Figure 9.8: of Job SatisfactionElements of Core Evaluations

    Core self evaluations scale cses
    Core Self-Evaluations of Job SatisfactionScale (CSES)

    Withdrawal behaviors
    Withdrawal Behaviors of Job Satisfaction

    • Work withdrawal

      • Attempt to withdraw from work but maintain ties to organization & work role (includes lateness & absenteeism)

    • Job withdrawal

      • Willingness to sever ties to organization & work role (includes intentions to quit or retire)

    • Progression hypothesis

    Module 9 3 related topics
    Module 9.3: Related Topics of Job Satisfaction

    • Job loss

      • Reduces income & daily variety

      • Suspension of typical goal setting guiding day-to-day activity

      • Fewer decisions to make

      • New skills not developed & old skills atrophy

      • Social relationships can change radically

    Telecommuting of Job Satisfaction

    • Accomplishing work tasks from distant location using electronic communications

    • # telecommuters will continue to rise

    • For many telecommuters, strategic planning skills & self-reported productivity increase

    • Higher satisfaction also reported

    Telecommuting cont d
    Telecommuting (cont’d) of Job Satisfaction

    • Possible negative effects

      • Worker alienation

      • Loss of important sense of identity

      • Promotion less likely

      • Rapid disillusionment with lack of promotional opportunities

    Telecommuting of Job Satisfaction

    Psychological contract
    Psychological Contract of Job Satisfaction

    Beliefs that people hold regarding the terms of an exchange agreement between them and an organization.

    When psychological contracts are broken, lower work attitudes and job performance are likely.

    Psychological contracts are receiving a lot of attention in the 21st Century workplace where long-term employment in 1 organization is increasingly rare.


    Work family balance
    Work-Family Balance of Job Satisfaction

    • Research investigating whether satisfaction one experiences at work is in part affected by satisfaction one experiences in non-work & vice versa

    • Negative influences on work-family balance

      • Electronically enhanced communications

      • Prevalence of multiple roles

    PhotoDisc/Getty Images

    Work related attitudes emotions from cross cultural perspective
    Work-Related Attitudes & Emotions From Cross-Cultural Perspective

    • Individualism & job satisfaction “+” correlated in some cultures, while collectivism & job satisfaction “+” correlated in other cultures

    • Degree of “fit” related to emotional reactions to work & subsequent work behaviors

      • Important for multinational organizations to consider