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Section 23.2. Cancer. Objectives. Describe how cancer affects the body. Identify the tests and treatments for cancer. List seven ways you can prevent cancer. Health Stats This graph shows the most common cancers in males and females.

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Section 23.2

Cancer

Objectives

Describe how cancer affects the body.

Identify the tests and treatments for cancer.

List seven ways you can prevent cancer.

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Health Stats This graph shows the most common cancers in males and females.

Is lung cancer more common in males or females? Why do you think this is the case?

how cancer affects the body
How Cancer Affects the Body
  • Cancer is a group of diseases that involves the rapid, uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
  • Cancer harms the body by destroying healthy body tissues.
  • Cancer cells typically form a mass of tissue called a tumor.
  • The word malignant (muh LIG nunt) is used to describe a cancerous tumor.
  • The spread of cancer from where it first develops to other parts of the body is called metastasis(muh TAS tuh sis).
causes of cancer
Causes of Cancer
  • Heredity Some people inherit genes that have a tendency to change, or mutate, into forms that allow cells to reproduce too rapidly. A normal gene that has changed into a cancer-causing gene is called an oncogene (AHN kuh jeen).
  • Environment The environment contains cancer-causing agents known as carcinogens(kahr SIN uh junz). Carcinogens can cause mutations in genes that control cell reproduction.
types of cancer
Types of Cancer
  • Cancer can occur in almost any part of the body.
  • A cancer is named according to the part of the body where it first develops.
  • Many cancers are curable if they are caught early.
  • Other cancers are hard to detect early in their development and pose a bigger challenge for treatment.
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For: Updates on skin cancer

Click above to go online.

evaluating tanning products
Evaluating Tanning Products

There is a lot of information available about the dangers of too much sun exposure. But, many young people still tan. Evaluate products that claim to give you a “healthy tan” using this questionnaire.

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Does the product’s labeling caution about the dangers of ultraviolet (UV) radiation?

Does the product provide SPF (sun protection factor) information?

Does the product encourage you to minimize your exposure to the sun or other UV radiation?

Does the product recommend other precautions—such as wearing sunglasses and a hat?

A “No” answer to one or more questions indicates that using the product may endanger your skin.

evaluating tanning products1
Evaluating Tanning Products

Choose a tanning product from a local store or a tanning salon. Use the checklist to evaluate the product. Then write a paragraph explaining why the product may or may not be healthy for your skin.

detecting and treating cancer
Detecting and Treating Cancer

The key to curing cancer is early detection and treatment.

tests
Tests
  • Screening tests, such as mammograms and chest X-rays, can detect cancers before any symptoms appear.
  • If cancer is suspected from screening test results, surgeons may remove a small piece of the tissue in question to examine it for signs of cancer.
  • This procedure is called a biopsy (BY ahp see).
treatments
Treatments
  • Cancer treatments depend on the type of cancer, its location, and its stage of development.
  • Surgery can remove a malignant tumor.
  • Radiation therapy can kill cancer cells and slow tumor growth.
  • Chemotherapy (kee moh THEHR uh pee) uses drugs to slow the reproduction of cancer cells. Immunotherapy (im yuh noh THEHR uh pee) uses drugs to stimulate the body’s immune system to attack cancer cells.
preventing cancer
Preventing Cancer
  • Regularly examining your skin and breasts or testicles for abnormal lumps or growth is a good habit to start.
  • Although the specific cause of most cancers is unknown, certain behaviors have been shown to decrease the risk of cancer.
  • Do not use any form of tobacco.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Respect the sun’s ultraviolet rays.
  • Choose a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol.
  • Exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight.
  • Avoid unnecessary X-rays, especially during pregnancy.
  • Avoid known carcinogens.
vocabulary
Vocabulary

cancer

A group of diseases involving the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.

tumor

An abnormal mass of tissue.

malignant

The term used to describe a cancerous tumor.

metastasis

The spread of cancer from where it first develops to other parts of the body.

oncogene

A normal gene that has changed into a cancer-causing gene.

carcinogen

A substance that is known to cause cancer.

biopsy

The removal of a small piece of tissue to examine it for signs of cancer.

quicktake quiz
QuickTake Quiz

Click to start quiz.

end of section 23 2 click on this slide to end this presentation
End of Section 23.2

Click on this slide to end this presentation.

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