Rhetoric and persuasive rhetoric
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Rhetoric and Persuasive Rhetoric. in To Kill A Mockingbird. Key Terms. Rhetoric: the art of communicating ideas. Persuasive Rhetoric: reasoned arguments in favor or against particular beliefs or courses of action. Effective Arguments.

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Rhetoric and persuasive rhetoric

Rhetoric and Persuasive Rhetoric

in To Kill A Mockingbird


Key terms

Key Terms

  • Rhetoric: the art of communicating ideas.

  • Persuasive Rhetoric: reasoned arguments in favor or against particular beliefs or courses of action


Effective arguments

Effective Arguments

  • Will engage both the mind and the emotions of its readers or audience

    • Writer needs to show that his or her position has a firm moral basis.

  • Examples:

    • Two wrongs do not make a right. Why then would people advocate for the death penalty? If a society is trying to show that murdering others is wrong, then murdering one that commits a crime sets a lousy example.

    • What is the moral basis in the above argument?


Effective arguments1

Effective Arguments

  • Clearly states the issue and a position

  • Gives an opinion and supports it with facts and reasons

  • Takes opposing views into account

  • Uses sound logic and effective language

  • Concludes by summing up reasons or calling for action


Types of appeals

Types of Appeals

  • Logical Appeals

  • Emotional Appeals

  • Ethical Appeals


Logical appeals

Logical Appeals

  • Provide rational arguments to support writers’ claims

  • Example: “Declaration of Independence”

    • Claim: All men are created equal

    • Argument: King George has committed “injuries and usurpations” that deny those in the colonies their basic rights. Writers then list these injuries. (The list of injuries is the logical appeal).


Logical appeals1

Logical Appeals

  • This appeal can be made in two different ways:

    • Deductively: Writer begins with a generalization and then proceeds to give examples and facts that support this claim.

      • General to specific

    • Inductively: Writer begins with examples and facts and the reader draws conclusions from them.

      • Specific to general

    • Is the Declaration of Independence inductively or deductively reasoned?


Emotional appeals

Emotional Appeals

  • Appeals to emotion are based on specific examples of suffering or potential threats.

  • Often include “loaded language”, which is language that is rich with connotations and vivid images.

    • Example: “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”

    • Someone advocating against capital punishment might detail a specific example of when someone was exonerated from a crime after they were already put to death.


Ethical appeals

Ethical Appeals

  • Based on shared moral values.

  • Call forth the audience’s sense of right, justice, and virtue.

    • Two wrongs do not make a right. Why then would people advocate for the death penalty? If a society is trying to show that murdering others is wrong, then murdering one that commits a crime sets a lousy example.


Styles of persuasion

Styles of Persuasion

  • Elevated Language

  • Rhetorical Questions

  • Repetition


Elevated language

Elevated Language

  • Formal words and phrases can lend a serious tone to a discussion.

  • Example:

    • “The powerful empire of nature is no longer surrounded by prejudice, fanaticism, superstition, and lies. The flame of truth has dispersed all the clouds of folly and usurpation.” – Olympe de Gouges from “Declaration of the Rights of Woman”


Rhetorical questions

Rhetorical Questions

  • These are questions that do not require answers.

  • Writers pose rhetorical questions to show that their arguments make the answers obvious.

  • Example:

    • “Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?” – Patrick Henry


Repetition

Repetition

  • Repeating a point or word that tells the audience that it is especially important.

  • Parallelism is another form of repetition. Rhythm of writing.

  • Example of parallelism:

    • “We hold these truths to be self-evident: --That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” – Thomas Jefferson from “Declaration of Independence


Example speech

Example Speech

  • http://youtu.be/k8TgqenWW0I


Analyzing atticus speech

Analyzing Atticus’ Speech

  • Identify the problem that is addressed and the solution that is proposed. Restate them in your own words.

  • Analyze the writer’s presentation of his argument. What rhetorical tools does he use?

  • Analyze the evidence used to support the argument. What facts support the writer’s opinion?

  • Consider how the writer appeals to logic, emotions, and ethics of his audience.

  • Evaluate the credibility of Atticus. What motivations might lie behind it?


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