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Energy Flow. ENERGY. Energy is the ability to do work and transfer heat. Kinetic energy – energy in motion heat, electromagnetic radiation Potential energy – stored for possible use batteries, glucose molecules. Electromagnetic Spectrum.

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Energy Flow

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Energy flow

Energy Flow


Energy

ENERGY

Energy is the ability to do work and transfer heat.

Kinetic energy – energy in motion

heat, electromagnetic radiation

Potential energy – stored for possible use

batteries, glucose molecules


Electromagnetic spectrum

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Many different forms of electromagnetic radiation exist, each having a different wavelength and energy content.

Figure 2-11


Energy flow

Sun

Ionizing radiation

Nonionizing radiation

Near

infrared

waves

Far

infrared

waves

Near

ultra-

violet

waves

Far

ultra-

violet

waves

Cosmic

rays

Gamma

Rays

Visible

Waves

TV

waves

Radio

Waves

X rays

Micro-

waves

High energy, short

Wavelength

Wavelength in meters

(not to scale)

Low energy, long

Wavelength

Fig. 2-11, p. 43


Electromagnetic spectrum1

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Organisms vary in their ability to sense different parts of the spectrum.

Figure 2-12


Energy flow

Energy emitted from sun (kcal/cm2/min)

Visible

Infrared

Ultraviolet

Wavelength (micrometers)

Fig. 2-12, p. 43


Energy laws two rules we cannot break

ENERGY LAWS: TWO RULES WE CANNOT BREAK

The first law of thermodynamics: we cannot create or destroy energy.

We can change energy from one form to another.

The second law of thermodynamics: energy quality always decreases.

When energy changes from one form to another, it is always degraded to a more dispersed form.

Energy efficiency is a measure of how much useful work is accomplished before it changes to its next form.


Energy flow

Mechanicalenergy(moving,thinking,living)

Chemical

energy

(photosynthesis)

Chemical

energy

(food)

Solar

energy

Waste

Heat

Waste

Heat

Waste

Heat

Waste

Heat

Fig. 2-14, p. 45


Producers basic source of all food

Producers: Basic Source of All Food

Most producers capture sunlight to produce carbohydrates by photosynthesis:


Producers basic source of all food1

Producers: Basic Source of All Food

Chemosynthesis:

Some organisms such as deep ocean bacteria draw energy from hydrothermal vents and produce carbohydrates from hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas .


Photosynthesis a closer look

Photosynthesis: A Closer Look

Chlorophyll molecules in the chloroplasts of plant cells absorb solar energy.

This initiates a complex series of chemical reactions in which carbon dioxide and water are converted to sugars and oxygen.

Figure 3-A


Energy flow

Sun

Chloroplast

in leaf cell

Chlorophyll

H2O

O2

Light-dependent

Reaction

Energy storage

and release

(ATP/ADP)

Glucose

Light-independent

reaction

CO2

Sunlight

6CO2 + 6 H2O

C6H12O6 +6 O2

Fig. 3-A, p. 59


Consumers eating and recycling to survive

Consumers: Eating and Recycling to Survive

Consumers (heterotrophs) get their food by eating or breaking down all or parts of other organisms or their remains.

Herbivores

Primary consumers that eat producers

Carnivores

Primary consumers eat primary consumers

Third and higher level consumers: carnivores that eat carnivores.

Omnivores

Feed on both plant and animals.


Decomposers and detrivores

Decomposers and Detrivores

Decomposers: Recycle nutrients in ecosystems.

Detrivores: Insects or other scavengers that feed on wastes or dead bodies.

Figure 3-13


Energy flow

Scavengers

Decomposers

Bark beetle engraving

Carpenter ant galleries

Termite and carpenter ant work

Long-horned beetle holes

Dry rot fungus

Wood reduced to powder

Time progression

Powder broken down by decomposers into plant nutrients in soil

Mushroom

Fig. 3-13, p. 61


Aerobic and anaerobic respiration getting energy for survival

Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration: Getting Energy for Survival

Organisms break down carbohydrates and other organic compounds in their cells to obtain the energy they need.

This is usually done through aerobic respiration.

The opposite of photosynthesis


Aerobic and anaerobic respiration getting energy for survival1

Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration: Getting Energy for Survival

Anaerobic respiration or fermentation:

Some decomposers get energy by breaking down glucose (or other organic compounds) in the absence of oxygen.

The end products vary based on the chemical reaction:

Methane gas

Ethyl alcohol

Acetic acid

Hydrogen sulfide


Two secrets of survival energy flow and matter recycle

Two Secrets of Survival: Energy Flow and Matter Recycle

An ecosystem survives by a combination of energy flow and matter recycling.

Figure 3-14


Energy flow in ecosystems

ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS

Food chains and webs show how eaters, the eaten, and the decomposed are connected to one another in an ecosystem.

Figure 3-17


Energy flow

First Trophic

Level

Second Trophic

Level

Third Trophic

Level

Fourth Trophic

Level

Tertiary consumers

(top carnivores)

Secondary consumers

(carnivores)

Producers

(plants)

Primary consumers

(herbivores)

Heat

Heat

Heat

Solar energy

Heat

Heat

Heat

Heat

Detritivores

(decomposers and detritus feeders)

Heat

Fig. 3-17, p. 64


Food webs

Food Webs

Trophic levels are interconnected within a more complicated food web.

Figure 3-18


Energy flow

Humans

Blue whale

Sperm whale

Crabeater seal

Elephant seal

Killer whale

Leopard

seal

Adelie

penguins

Emperor

penguin

Squid

Petrel

Fish

Carnivorous plankton

Krill

Herbivorous

plankton

Phytoplankton

Fig. 3-18, p. 65


Energy flow in an ecosystem losing energy in food chains and webs

Energy Flow in an Ecosystem: Losing Energy in Food Chains and Webs

In accordance with the 2nd law of thermodynamics, there is a decrease in the amount of energy available to each succeeding organism in a food chain or web.


Energy flow in an ecosystem losing energy in food chains and webs1

Energy Flow in an Ecosystem: Losing Energy in Food Chains and Webs

Ecological efficiency: percentage of useable energy transferred as biomass from one trophic level to the next.

Figure 3-19


Energy flow

Heat

Heat

Tertiary

consumers

(human)

Decomposers

Heat

10

Secondary

consumers

(perch)

Heat

100

Primary

consumers

(zooplankton)

1,000

Heat

Producers

(phytoplankton)

10,000

Usable energy

Available at

Each tropic level

(in kilocalories)

Fig. 3-19, p. 66


Productivity of producers the rate is crucial

Productivity of Producers: The Rate Is Crucial

Gross primary production (GPP)

Rate at which an ecosystem’s producers convert solar energy into chemical energy as biomass.

Figure 3-20


Energy flow

Gross primary productivity

(grams of carbon per square meter)

Fig. 3-20, p. 66


Net primary production npp

Net Primary Production (NPP)

NPP = GPP – R

Rate at which producers use photosynthesis to store energy minus the rate at which they use some of this energy through respiration (R).

Figure 3-21


Energy flow

Sun

Photosynthesis

Energy lost

and unavailable to consumers

Respiration

Gross primary production

Net primary production (energy available to consumers)

Growth and reproduction

Fig. 3-21, p. 66


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