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Drugs, man…. Drugs. Recently, has this been you? Withdrawn, depressed, tired, and careless about personal grooming Hostile and uncooperative Relationships with family members have deteriorated Hanging around with a new group of friends Irregular school attendance, slipping grades

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Drugs

  • Recently, has this been you?

  • Withdrawn, depressed, tired, and careless about personal grooming

  • Hostile and uncooperative

  • Relationships with family members have deteriorated

  • Hanging around with a new group of friends

  • Irregular school attendance, slipping grades

  • Lost interest in hobbies, sports, other favorite activities

  • Eating and sleeping patterns changed

  • Hard time concentrating

  • Money been disappearing

  • Red-rimmed eyes and runny nose without having a cold


Drugs

  • These are signs your child might be using drugs—from US Dept of Education’s “Growing up Drug-free: A Parent’s Guide to Prevention”

  • Withdrawn, depressed, tired, and careless about personal grooming

  • Hostile and uncooperative

  • Relationships with family members have deteriorated

  • Hanging around with a new group of friends

  • Irregular school attendance, slipping grades

  • Lost interest in hobbies, sports, other favorite activities

  • Eating and sleeping patterns changed

  • Hard time concentrating

  • Money been disappearing

  • Red-rimmed eyes and runny nose without having a cold


Drugs
Drugs

Most Knowledge is Based on Rhetoric:

Billions spent annually to convince people that drugs are bad.


Drugs1
Drugs

  • Foundations of American Anti-Drug Culture

  • Anti-hedonism

  • Racism

  • Alcohol-Southern/Eastern European Catholics

  • Opiates-Chinese

  • Marijuana-Mexicans

  • Crack-African Americans

  • Club Drugs-Sexually active youth

  • Prohibition is sold with anti-crime rhetoric. Linking drugs to crime “sells” “cracking down.”


Drugs

  • Most Knowledge is Based on Rhetoric

  • Billions spent annually to convince people that drugs are bad.

  • To feel like they are being responsible, most text writers insert negative adjectives next to references to drug use. (e.g., unfortunately, drug abuse, infested with drugs, addicted, on drugs, etc.)

  • Media actively pursue anti-drug campaigns to satisfy “public service” requirements.

  • Paid placement of anti-drug messages in entertainment.


Drugs

  • Most Knowledge is Based on Rhetoric

  • Federal government controls access to illegal drugs for research purposes.

  • Federal government permits only research intended to “prove” that drugs cause harm.

  • But FDA will not approve drugs (such as medical marijuana) unless research proves effectiveness.



Drugs

  • Most Knowledge is Based on Rhetoric

  • Federal government controls access to illegal drugs for research purposes.

  • Federal government permits only research intended to “prove” that drugs cause harm.

  • But FDA will not approve drugs (such as medical marijuana) unless research proves effectiveness.

  • Most of what we know about “druggies” come from hard-core users, criminals, and addicted persons (sampling on the dependent variable)

  • Everyday Americans, politicians blame drugs for most ills.


Drugs

  • Most Knowledge is Based on Rhetoric

  • Drug epidemics are typically “manufactured” by media, police, or concerned parents


Drugs

  • Drug Use, Drug Abuse, and Drug Sells are Separate Dimensions of the Drug Issue.

  • For example, some people eat chocolate for pleasure, some binge on chocolate, and others sell chocolate.

  • So we will treat use, abuse and sells as separate phenomena.

  • Why do persons use drugs?


Drugs

  • Drug Use, Drug Abuse, and Drug Sells are Separate Dimensions of the Drug Issue.

  • For example, some people eat chocolate for pleasure, some binge on chocolate, and others sell chocolate.

  • So we will treat use, abuse and sells as separate phenomena.

  • Why do persons abuse drugs?


Drugs

  • Drug Use, Drug Abuse, and Drug Sells are Separate Dimensions of the Drug Issue.

  • For example, some people eat chocolate for pleasure, some binge on chocolate, and others sell chocolate.

  • So we will treat use, abuse and sales as separate phenomena.

  • Why do persons sell drugs?


Drugs3
Drugs

  • Drug-Crime Links

  • Recreational users are not linked to crime.

  • Criminals are more likely to use drugs.

  • Addicts, a much smaller number of users, turn to low-grade crime to get more drugs. Their crimes typically follow behaviors they already had. For example: selling drugs, prostituting self, or petty theft.

  • Violence is on the business side of drugs, like during alcohol prohibition and prohibitions on gambling. Persons involved in drug business cannot turn to police to settle disputes and remedy their own criminal victimization or turn to civil court to make and enforce contracts.


Drugs

  • But since so many criminals have drugs in their systems, doesn’t that indicate that drugs cause crime?

  • No:

  • Many Americans use drugs, many people have drugs in their systems

  • We do not attempt to associate other common behaviors with crime. Criminals would have experienced these things too:

    • Ate Fast Food Drank Cola Smoked cigarettes

    • Watched “WWE” Had Sex Rode public transit

  • Persons in crime are often un- or underemployed. Drugs are used, like other entertainment such as TV or alcohol, to help pass the time.

  • Drug use is more common in evenings and weekends when other types of misbehavior are common

  • Among criminals, criminal involvement typically precedes drug involvement

  • Criminals have greater access to drugs because the drug trade is relegated to criminal networks

  • Having and dealing drugs is a crime for which persons are arrested, placing drug users in the ranks of counted criminals. Analogous to prostitutes having had sex.


Drugs

  • Damage from “War on Drugs”

  • Ruins lives of those caught versus those who are not

  • Intervention is racist and classist, affecting disadvantaged more

  • Generation and perpetuation of stereotypes

  • Increases violence surrounding drugs

  • Breaks up some families

  • Increases social problems for those living in poor and minority neighborhoods

  • Weakens protections of civil liberties, especially for kids

  • Costs billions of dollars to incarcerate the guilty (in addition to the billions spent on prevention efforts)


Drugs

  • Special Case: Marijuana

  • Not a gateway drug


Drugs

  • Special Case: Marijuana

  • Not a gateway drug

  • Rates of use of all drugs follow availability


Drugs

  • Special Case: Marijuana

  • Not a gateway drug

  • Rates of use of all drugs follow availability

  • Not Dangerous


Drugs

  • Special Case: Marijuana

  • Not a gateway drug

  • Rates of use of all drugs follow availability

  • Not Dangerous

  • Effects on thinking and social skills



Drugs

  • Special Case: Marijuana

  • Not a gateway drug

  • Rates of use of all drugs follow availability

  • Not Dangerous

  • Effects on thinking and social skills

  • Effects on work and industriousness


Drugs

  • Special Case: Marijuana

  • Not a gateway drug

  • Rates of use of all drugs follow availability

  • Not Dangerous

  • Effects on thinking and social skills

  • Effects on work and industriousness

  • Does not cause psychosis and amotivational personality (reversed causality)


Drugs

  • Special Case: Marijuana

  • Not a gateway drug

  • Rates of use of all drugs follow availability

  • Not Dangerous

  • Effects on thinking and social skills

  • Effects on work and industriousness

  • Does not cause psychosis and amotivational personality (reversed causality)

  • Drug testing is most likely to catch these users

Drug Testing Programs are Ineffective and Inaccurate:

Because urine testing is based on an analysis of metabolites associated with the drug in question, and because alcohol and cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine all pass through the body within 24-48 hours, leaving no metabolites, marijuana is the only substance that is easily detected with urinalysis. Drugs that have a more significant impact on employment or work performance, such as alcohol and other illegal drugs, are not effectively tested for with urinalysis.   

Source: "Drug Testing: A Bad Investment," ACLU pamphlet on drug testing in the workforce (hereafter, "Drug Testing," pg. 13, et. al., link provided below


Drugs

  • Special Case: Marijuana

  • Use and Crime

Serious Violent Crime Offending among 12 – 17 year-olds.


Drugs

Marijuana: Trends in Annual Use


Drugs5
Drugs

  • Marijuana

  • Cost?

  • Highs (good weed/exotic):dime-$15dub bag-$25eighth-$40quarter-$80half ounce-$150ounce-$250Pound-$3000

  • Mode of transfer?

  • Smoke, eat

  • Effects on Persons?

  • Friendly, social,

  • laugh, anxiety for hours

  • Typical Users?

  • Everyone


Drugs

Crack: Trends in Annual Use

Annual Review of Public HealthVol. 17: 259-273 (Volume publication date January 1996)

Crack Cocaine Abuse: An Epidemic with Many Public Health Consequences

J W Cornish, and C P O'Brien


Drugs6
Drugs

  • Crack

  • Cost?

  • $10/ hit

  • Mode of transfer?

  • Smoke

  • Effects on Persons?

  • Quick, intense high, fades fast

  • Typical Users?

  • Urban poor


Drugs

MDMA (Ecstasy)

http://www.troubledteen.us/ecstasy.php


Mdma ecstasy trends in annual use

Drugs

MDMA (Ecstasy): Trends in Annual Use


Drugs7
Drugs

  • Ecstasy

  • Cost?

  • $40/ tablet

  • Mode of transfer?

  • oral

  • Effects on Persons?

  • In love, sensational, hours

  • Typical Users?

  • Partiers


Drugs

Methamphetamine

Another Epidemic!!!

May 13, 2005


Drugs

Methamphetamine: Trends in Annual Use


Drugs8
Drugs

  • Methamphetamines

  • Cost?

  • $75

  • Mode of transfer?

  • Smoke, inject

  • Effects on Persons?

  • High energy, talkative, enhanced sexuality, weight loss, hours

  • Typical Users?

  • Partiers, rural, whites



Drugs

Cocaine Powder: Trends in Annual Use


Drugs10
Drugs

  • Cocaine

  • Cost?

  • $300 per night

  • Mode of transfer?

  • snort

  • Effects on Persons?

  • High energy, heightened senses

  • Typical Users?

  • Wealthier, cosmopolitan, white


Drugs

Amphetamines (speed): Trends in Annual Use


Drugs11
Drugs

ABC News:

Need for Speed

Did Amphetamines Play a Role in Afghanistan Friendly Fire Incident?

Dec. 20 — Preliminary court-martial proceedings begin next month against two U.S. fighter pilots involved in a tragic incident over Afghanistan that cost four lives and exposed a little-known fact about the way America fights its long-distance air wars.

  • Amphetamines, Speed

  • Cost? $20 (?)

  • Mode of transfer? Snort

  • Effects on Persons? Alert, hyped

  • Typical Users? Partiers and Truck Drivers


Lsd trends in annual use

Drugs

LSD: Trends in Annual Use


Drugs12
Drugs

Secret FBI Files On Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane

Nov. 22 — The ABC7 News I-Team obtained once secret FBI files concerning San Francisco's Summer of Love. The reports show how J. Edgar Hoover and his G-men were very concerned about the effect the Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane were having on America's youth. Jefferson Airplane's Grace Slick told the I-Team she had no idea the FBI was trailing her and looking into her background, including her private school days at Castilleja High in Palo Alto.

The files focused on both bands apparent involvement with LSD, and the potential "Internal Security" threats from the "New Left." One FBI report says that, "LSD originates from San Francisco?through a renowned rock group known as Grateful Dead."

  • LSD

  • Cost? $10/hit

  • Mode of transfer? Place on tongue

  • Effects on Persons? Psychedelic trip

  • Typical Users? Music Scene, dropouts


Drugs13
Drugs

Hallucinogens other than LSD: Trends in Annual Use


Drugs14
Drugs

  • Hallucinogens

  • Cost? Free

  • Mode of transfer? Tea, Eat

  • Effects on Persons? Psychedelic

  • Typical Users? Cross-cutting



Heroin trends in annual use

Drugs

Heroin: Trends in Annual Use


Drugs15
Drugs

  • Heroin

  • Cost? $20

  • Mode of transfer? Sniff, smoke, or inject

  • Effects on Persons? Life is mellow and extremely pleasant

  • Typical Users? Urban Poor, Hopeless, Entertainers


Drugs

Inhalants: Trends in Annual Use


Drugs16
Drugs

  • Inhalants

  • Cost? Cheap

  • Mode of transfer? Inhale

  • Effects on Persons? Loopy

  • Typical Users? Youngsters



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