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, ..., , ..., , PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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950635

, ..., , ..., ,


950635

- -- 1. . -. ,


950635

, / / , , . :1. , ( , )2. , =.3. .4. .


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1. - : , -, -. . ( ). .


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2. - -: , . . . .


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3. - : , . .


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4. : , ( ).


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5. : , , , , .. ( ). .

1H 4-. ( ~9,25.) , ( ~1,85-2..) .


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6. : . ( ). .


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7. : . , .

CH2N6O2


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- --


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, - --

1. , .. , , - , , 20000 ...

2. - , - , 1000 ...

3. - , - (, - 700 000 ) .


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, - --

4. - -- , .. . , , , , - .

  • , , , .

  • (, ), , .


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:

1. - --.

2. , .

3. .

3. : --, - .

4. - --, , .


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1. ..,

.. .

.

.: ,

, 2003. 683 .

2. ..

-

.

.: .

, 2003. 493 .

3. ..,

.., .., .. - . .: /, 2001. 286 .

4. .., .. -- ( ). .: , 1984. 216 .


950635

-


950635

-

1. .

, , .. . . . .

2. .

. .

3. .

. .

4. .

.

5. .

.


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:

1. ( , 110-2 = 1 ) , (110-7 = 110-5 1000 10-8 ) , , , ().

.


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:

.

.


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-:


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-

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6


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4- !

:

:

:

:

:


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:

, , s1 s2 , , , 1, , 2 r1, r, r2 , 1+, + 2+.


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-

- : I , II , III , IV , V .

1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 7 ; 8


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-

1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 7 ; 8 ; 9 ( ); 10 ; 11 , ; 12 ; 13 ; 14 , 15 - ; 16 ; 17 ; 18 ; 19 ; 20 - ; 21 .


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, , , . , , , , , M+, , , .

, 70 :

.


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:

- CH3-CH2-C(=O)-O-CH2-CH3

( 102) 70, 20 14 ,


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1.

2. - ,

3. -,

1.

2. ,

3. , .


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!!!

70 , , , , , . - -, 70 . - (, , ) , , 70 ( ).


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1. (CI)

2. (Photoionization)

3. (ESI)

4. (MALDI, Matrix-Assisted Laser

Desorption/Ionization)

5. / (FI)

6. (APCI)


950635

1. (CI, Chemical Ionization)

. , , , , , . 150-200 -. :

CH4CH4+

CH4++ CH4CH5+ + CH3

, :

M + CH5+ MH+ + CH4

-.

:

1. , 5 , .

2. .

:

1. , - .

2. , ().


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2. (Photoionization)

, , 0.01-0.02 . . 10-40 , .

:

1. .

2. , , .

:

1. .

2. .

3. ( ).


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3. (ESI, Electro Spray Ionization)

() , ( , , ..), , . - (), ( ) , , , . , , ( ). , , , .


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3. (ESI, Electro Spray Ionization)

, , , (H+, Na+, K+), :

. Z- , .


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3. (ESI, Electro Spray Ionization)

. -, - Bruker micrOTOFQ


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3. (ESI, Electro Spray Ionization)

:

1. ,

2. -

3. ( )

4. ()

:

1.

2. - , , (H+, Na+, K+),


950635

4. (MALDI, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization)

, - , (, , 3- , 6,7- ..).

- .


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4. (MALDI, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization)

, (0.1 1 ) . , , , . .


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4. (MALDI, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization)

:

1. ( 100 000 )

2.

3.

:

1. - - , +1

2. -


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5. / (FI, Field Ionization)

(, ), ( 1 /). () . .

:

1. , , , , .

2. , , (, , , , ).

:

1. .

2. .


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6. (APCI, Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization)

, . -. , ( ), , . :


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6. (APCI, Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization)

, -. , (, ), :


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6. (APCI, Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization)

:

1.

2. ( )

3. ,

:

1. 1500 ,

2. - ( )


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( - )

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.


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1.

(, 1918 .). .

. -


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2. ()

, ( ), , ( ). , R , :

, , .. -.


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2. ()

, ( ) , .. , .

. - (


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3.

-, , U + V(cos t), :

. , () () . () ().


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3.

, (.. ) . , , . , -.


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4. (TOF, Time Of Flight)

:

V . , .

. -, 1 2 () ()


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5. (Ion Trap)

. () (), , . :


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5.

, . (0,1 10 ). .

m/z ( ), - .


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():

- Thermo Electron

DFS:


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- ( )


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- (R) , m (m+m):

, . 10% 50% - .


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-

, , 400 ...

!

!

,


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-


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- (, HRMS High Resolution Mass-Spectrometry) , .

28. CO, N2, C2H4. 12 (12.000000), : 1 1.00782506, 14N 14.00307407, 16 15.99491475 .. -27.9949, N2 - 28.0061, C2H4 - 28.0313.

. 28 -


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, 5000 , 28.

(4-6 ) . , , , - , m/z 19 M+ ( 1500 ).

, , -.


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. ( 222) (219 231):

m/z:

222.1111

:

222.1113

-:

C10H14N4O2


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, 163.9497 :

- ( ), .


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- ( ) Thermo Electron DFS (Double Focusing System) - Bruker micrOTOFQ. .

. - Thermo Electron DFS Thermo Electron Trace GC Ultra


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. - Bruker micrOTOFQ Agilent 1100


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