Human learning memory
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Human Learning & Memory. Siena Heights University Chapter 6 Dr. S.Talbot. Social Cognitive Theory (aka social learning theory) Def. – learning by ________ and ________. General Principles People can learn by observing others. Learning can occur without a change in behaviors

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Human learning memory

Human Learning & Memory

Siena Heights University

Chapter 6

Dr. S.Talbot


Chapter 6 social cognitive theory

  • Social Cognitive Theory (aka social learning theory)

    • Def. – learning by ________ and ________.

    • General Principles

      • People can learn by observing others.

      • Learning can occur without a change in behaviors

      • Cognition plays an important role in learning.

      • People can have considerable control over their actions and environments.

Chapter 6 – Social Cognitive Theory


Chapter 6 social cognitive theory1

  • Environmental factors in Social Learning

    • Observer gets reinforced by the model.

    • Observer is reinforced by a third person.

    • The imitated behavior leads to reinforcing consequences.

    • The consequences of the model affects the observer ___________ (punishment or reinforcement).

Chapter 6 – Social Cognitive Theory


Chapter 6 social cognitive theory2

  • Cognitive factors in Social Learning

    • Learning involves a mental rather than behavioral change.

    • Certain cognitive approaches are necessary.

    • Learners form beliefs about their ability to perform various behaviors (efficacy).

    • The occurrence of consequences is influential.

    • The non occurrence of consequences is influential in and of itself.

Chapter 6 – Social Cognitive Theory


Chapter 6 social cognitive theory3

  • Reciprocal Causation

    • Environment (E): General conditions in the outside world.

    • Person (P): An individual’s particular physical characteristics, cognitive processes, and socially and culturally conferred roles and reputations.

    • Behavior (B): An individual’s observable actions and reactions.

P

Chapter 6 – Social Cognitive Theory

E

A


Chapter 6 social cognitive theory4

  • How modeling affects behavior

    • Teaches new behaviors

    • Influences the frequency of behaviors (the same or similar)

    • Encourages previously ________ behaviors

Chapter 6 – Social Cognitive Theory


Chapter 6 social cognitive theory5

  • Characteristics of successful models

    • The model is _______ or _______.

    • The model has _____ & ______.

    • The model behaves in stereotypical ways.

    • The models behavior is ______ to the observer’s situation.

    • __________ between the observer and model.

Chapter 6 – Social Cognitive Theory


Chapter 6 social cognitive theory6

  • Necessary conditions

    • ________ to the model.

    • Retention of __________.

    • Motor Reproduction (physical ability)

    • Motivation or desire to perform the modeled behavior. This may include the idea of self – efficacy in the behavior demonstrated.

Chapter 6 – Social Cognitive Theory


Chapter 6 social cognitive theory7

  • Self-efficacy: The _______ belief in one’s ability to ________.

    • Not the same as self-esteem or self – concept.

    • Affects our choice of activities.

    • Affects our goals.

    • Affects effort or persistence.

    • Affects learning and achievement.

    • Learners are at a disadvantage when the ___________ and _________ their abilities. How?

Chapter 6 – Social Cognitive Theory


Chapter 6 social cognitive theory8

  • How is self - efficacy developed?

    • Previous successes and failures.

    • Current emotional state.

    • Messages from others.

    • Successes and failure of others.

    • Successes and failures of the group as a whole.

Chapter 6 – Social Cognitive Theory


Chapter 6 social cognitive theory9

  • Self-regulation

    • Elements

      • Setting standards

      • Self-observation

      • Self – evaluation

      • Self – reaction

      • Self - reflection

    • Promoting

      • Self – instructions

      • Self – monitoring

      • Self – reinforcement

      • Self – imposed stimulus control

Chapter 6 – Social Cognitive Theory


Chapter 6 social cognitive theory10

  • Implications?

    • Modeling

    • Clarify of consequences

    • Efficacy

    • Expectations

Chapter 6 – Social Cognitive Theory


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