World Urban Forum Gender Equality Action Assembly Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, 19 – 20 March, 2010. “Bridging the Gender Divide in Cities”. Yusto Paradius Muchuruza Executive Director-KADETFU -Tanzania firstname.lastname@example.org www.kadetfu.or.tz.
World Urban Forum Gender Equality Action Assembly Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, 19 – 20 March, 2010
“Bridging the Gender Divide in Cities”
Yusto Paradius Muchuruza
Executive Director-KADETFU -Tanzania
PRESENTATION ON HOW TO BRIDGE THE URBAN DIVIDE THROUGH
THE SANITATION MICRO CREDIT FOR WOMEN
INTRODUCTION Urban areas are characterized by poor access to water and sanitation facilities.Most of households have no sanitary facilities, (no toilets, poor sewer systems, septic tanks, pit latrines;) and those with, are very pathetic and unhygienic which instead, cause health hazards especially during rain seasons. Women and children are most affected by such situation.
Sanitation situation in the areaAccording to the sanitation profile assessment by KADETFU (2009) in Muleba, Mutukula and Bukoba Towns – Tanzania; the sanitation situation is worse (i.e. only 24% of urban households with improved toilets)The Household survey by ELCT/NWD-PHC Programme (2009) in rural villages of Kagera Region; show a big percentage of 80% without hygienic toilet facilities.
Toilet situation in Urban areas of Kagera
Region – Tanzania
Source: KADETTFU 2009 (Rapid Sanitation Profile Assessment )
Source: ELCT/NWD - PHC (Household Survey) 2009
Factors attributing to poor condition of toilets:
Poverty (Low economic base) i.e. low income at family level.
Lack of health and hygiene education among the people
Laxity, Negligence and Less priority given to sanitation among some people (especially men) who, in reality are not poor.
(they build expensive houses but toilets are not their priority).
(Source: ELCT-PHC programme 2009 and KADETFU 2009)
Definition on Sanitation Micro-credit Revolving Fund Scheme
Sanitation Micro-credit Revolving Fund Scheme is a strategy for bringing about transformation and improved delivery system for sanitation services in the urbanizing communities settled around Lake Victoria and beyond.
The driving force for this strategy is “Social Marketing” that creates “Social/Sanitation Demand” for services.
The project provides sanitary facilities to the Female Headed Households utilizing Micro-credit Revolving Fund Scheme; through a “Social Marketing Approach” (SMA).
The “Demand” in this aspect is created when CONSUMERS are MOTIVATED, have OPPORTUNITY and ABILITY to purchase a sanitation technology which suits their needs.
Consumers refers to those households seeking to solve their own sanitation problems, make their own decisions and choices and like consumers everywhere have their different preferences, resources, values, priorities and circumstances.
Motivationcreates curiosity for adoption of improved sanitation facilities and is normally attributed to the immediate and direct benefits of increased convenience, comfort, cleanliness, privacy, safety, and prestige offered by home sanitation.Opportunity refers to access to good sanitation product information and credible service supply chains.
Ability refers to the resources the consumers are willing to forego to make use of opportunities that improve their home sanitation facilities. It is an opportunity cost of foregoing some other utilities for the sake of constructing a toilet facility. However; Contrary to “ABILITY” is “LAXITY”
THE DEMAND-FORCE MODEL
Why targeting womenThe programme use women as an entry point to the community because in most cultures, women have the primary responsibility for water, sanitation and hygiene at the household level. For them, sanitation means more than just latrines; they want safe private places with sufficient water for personal use and for the family.
Why women.........Additionally, women are prone to reproductive tract infections caused by poor sanitation due to their biological made. Unhygienic public toilets and latrines threaten their health and that of their children Also, studies show that, while men are negligent on sanitation issues, women are prudent of the same, but due to patriarch system in the family, they have no decision on resource utilization.
Why women…………Women play a crucial role in influencing the hygiene behaviors of young children. The effective use of sanitation facilities in urban areas therefore, depend on the involvement of both women and men in selecting the location and technology of such facilities
Social Marketing is a useful approach of convincing people to adopt practices and change behaviours that will improve their lives, both health wise and economically.
Social marketing that has been successfully used in many sectors; is based on a holistic concept of management which necessitates a change in the supply sector, attitude and consumer behavior
Social marketing …..Social marketing considers people as customers rather than beneficiaries, and focuses on processes that empower the customer to make informed choices. In a common marketing scenario, social marketing acts as a process of advertisement of social commodities i.e. service and facilities.
Within the sanitation sector, such processes include awareness building and careful consideration of issues such as health and hygiene, convenience and human dignity, productivity and economic gain – be it through savings or improved earning potential – and matching them with viable technical solutions.(Anna K. Tibaijuka; Executive Director-UN-HABITAT)
Successful Marketing can:- ensure that supply is adapted to people’s preferences and their willingness to pay.- enhance long term financial sustainability.- at large scale can be cost effective in the long run as demand and investments increase.- encourage women to get hold of men on sanitation decisions since the former are already motivated.
The Sanitation Microcredit project in East Africa.- is being implemented in three countries of East Africa.- marketing therefore has taken roots, as many women, even those from able families, wants to join. -the demand is high especially from women , even beyond the targeted area, need for expansion. (women are therefore change agents, they can bridge gender divide)
THE PROJECT OBJECTIVES include: Provision of household toilet facilities to poor FHH through Micro credit/revolving fund scheme, Promotion of innovative and affordable technologies in provision of sanitation facilities at household level, Promotion of Hygiene and Health messages to communities by encouraging poor women to take health action for themselves and others, Encouragement of poor FHH to work together in solidarity/self help groups.
Sanitation Microcredit implementation model
MULTSTAKEHOLDERS FORUM (MSF)
Recommendations:Sanitation is a human rightGovernments, (Policy makers) should ensure that policies,political and legislative frameworks are in place to ensure that right is reached. Governments have an obligation to respect, protect and fulfill this right, using the maximum of available resources to progressively realize it.
Urban aouthorities must ensure urban social service planning is gender based and oriented.
Priority actions should include:
Government to Review laws, policies, strategies and financing to ensure that sanitation is given sufficient priority, is treated as a right and that regulation is appropriate.
Inclusive cities are made of both women and men. Lack of one, they are in-habitable
Thefeore; social services in cities must base on both sexes.
Women hold the key to the continued sanitary operation of units and their benefits to the family health. Women therefore merit special attention during the planning of sanitation projects to make sure that the facilities are planned with full awareness of their perceptions and needs (Perret, 1985).
Sanitation Micro-credit revolving fund scheme for the Female Headed Households, through a Social marketing approach that involves both women and men; can BRIDGE THE GENDER DIVIDE in URBAN AREAS