What is the Toulmin Method?. Is a simple, practical method of reasoning created by a British philosopher, Stephen Toulmin He divided arguments into three logical parts: Data : The evidence to prove something Claim : Your opinion statement, what you are proving
Rhetorical Framework for Teaching Nonfiction, Fiction, Poetry, and Drama
Exigence (the gap, the need)
Central Idea: Shaped by Enthymeme –Data, Claim [assumed “since”] [ or Syllogism (Because, Therefore, Since) Toulmin Method]
Appeal to character Appeal to emotions
Good sense States of life
Diction Syntax Imagery Figurative Language
Elements of Literature. Ed. John Haffner Layden, et.al. 5th
Course. Texas: Holt Rinehart Winston, 2005.
5 Steps to a 5. Ed. Barbara Murphy and Estelle Rankin.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Teaching Nonfiction in AP* English. Samuel Cohen.
New York: Bedford/ St. Martins, 2005.
The Bedford Reader. Ed. X.J. Kennedy, Dorothy M. Kennedy,
and Jane E. Aaron. 9th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins,
The Well-Crafted Argument. Ed. Fred D. White and Simone J.
Billings. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.