The senses
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The Senses. Somatic senses throughout body, including internal organs Touch, vibrations Temperature Pressure Pain Body position, movements Special senses - located in certain areas only Smell Taste Sight Hearing Balance. Sensory Receptors: Receive and Convert Stimuli.

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The Senses

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The senses

The Senses

  • Somatic senses throughout body, including internal organs

    • Touch, vibrations

    • Temperature

    • Pressure

    • Pain

    • Body position, movements

  • Special senses - located in certain areas only

    • Smell

    • Taste

    • Sight

    • Hearing

    • Balance


Sensory receptors receive and convert stimuli

Sensory Receptors: Receive and Convert Stimuli

  • Mechanoreceptors: mechanical energy

  • Thermoreceptors: hot or cold

  • Pain Receptors: tissue injury, excessive pressure

  • Chemoreceptors: chemicals; taste and smell

  • Photoreceptors: light


Receptor adaptation to continuing stimuli

Receptor Adaptation to Continuing Stimuli

  • Purpose: CNS concentrates on important stimuli and ignores others

  • Receptors that adapt: light touch, pressure, smell

  • Receptors that do not adapt: pain, joint, and muscle monitoring receptors


Sensory receptors in skin

Sensory Receptors in Skin

Figure 12.1


Cns interpretation

CNS Interpretation

  • Location: nerves hard wired to specific portions of brain, specific nerve stimulus results in assigning specific location

    • Referred pain

  • Strength of feeling: frequency of nerve stimulus


The ear

The Ear

  • Houses two senses in different organs

    • Hearing

    • Balance

  • Receptors are mechanoreceptors


Anatomy of the ear

Anatomy of the Ear

  • The ear is divided into three areas

    • Outer ear

      • Pinna, auditory canal

Figure 8.12


The middle ear

The Middle Ear

  • Air-filled cavity within the temporal bone

  • tympanic membrane

  • Three bones span the cavity

    • Malleus (hammer)

    • Incus (anvil)

    • Stapes (stirrup)

      auditory tube


Inner ear or bony labyrinth

Inner Ear or Bony Labyrinth

  • converts sound vibrations to nerve impulses

  • balance

  • Filled with perilymph

  • Chambers:

    • Cochlea

    • Vestibule

    • Semicircular canals

Figure 8.12


Mechanisms of hearing

Mechanisms of Hearing

Cochlea has 2 compartments:

1. Vestibular and tympanic canals (joined at far end)

2. Cochlear duct

Figure 8.16a–b


Organs of hearing

Organs of Hearing

Cochlea in transverse sectionOrgan of Corti

Figure 8.15


Mechanisms of hearing1

Mechanisms of Hearing

1. Sound waves

2. Tectorial membrane

3. Hair cells bend

4. Triggers action potential

5. Adaptation to

stimulus

Figure 8.16a–b


Organs of equilibrium

Organs of Equilibrium

  • Receptor cells are in two structures

    • Vestibule - static equilibrium

    • Semicircular canals - dynamic equilibrium

Figure 8.14a–b


Sensing rotational movement

Sensing rotational movement

Ampulla with mechanoreceptors in cupula

Tuft of hair cells

  • Cupula (gelatinous cap) covers the hair cells

Figure 8.14c


Sensing head position and acceleration

Sensing head position and acceleration:

vestibule with otoliths -

reports on the position of the head

Figure 8.13a–b


Balance inner ear

Balance: Inner Ear

  • Specialized structures:

    • Vestibular apparatus: three semicircular canals and vestibule

      • Sensing rotational movement: ampulla with mechanoreceptors in cupula

      • Sensing head rotation and acceleration: in vestibule with otoliths


Chemical senses taste and smell

Chemical Senses – Taste and Smell

  • Both senses use chemoreceptors

    • Stimulated by chemicals in solution

    • Taste has four types of receptors

    • Smell can differentiate a large range of chemicals - 1000+

  • Both senses complement each other and respond to many of the same stimuli


Olfaction the sense of smell

Olfaction – The Sense of Smell

  • Olfactory receptor cells: chemoreceptors that bind with odorants

  • Correlation between taste and smell: chewed food releases chemicals that come in contact with olfactory receptors


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