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THE ROOTS OF NORDIC NETWORKING. The worlds first international, multiprotocol network. Rolf Nordhagen University of Oslo. The beginning. An Open network is a network that follows a common, open standard, OSI National academic networks, UNINETT 1978, SUNET 1980, Centernet, X25 packet switched

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slide1

THE ROOTS OF NORDIC NETWORKING

The worlds first international, multiprotocol network

Rolf Nordhagen

University of Oslo

the beginning
The beginning
  • An Open network is a network that follows a common, open standard, OSI
  • National academic networks, UNINETT 1978, SUNET 1980, Centernet, X25 packet switched
  • ARPANET to NORSAR, Kjeller, Norway 1973
  • Minicomputers, Timesharing, KOM Stockholm, Oslo
  • International Dial-up
enter nordunet
Enter NORDUNET
  • Nordic Council of Ministers, NORDFORSK

Bjørn Grønlund

  • The first meeting 1980, Dalarne, Sweden
  • 1983-84, the NORDUNET application
  • May 1985 9.2 Mill.NOK for 4 years
  • Initially NORDFORSK, then Stockholm QZ/SICS, Mats Brunell
  • Technical manager Einar Løvdal, Oslo
the requirements
The requirements
  • A stable, operating computer network, connecting Nordic Education and Research
  • Build on existing university networks
  • Use the Nordic telecommunication networks and international standards for tele- and data-communication.
  • Make a common use of data-resources, programs and databases available througout the Nordic area. Users shall be given access to Nordic and international networks and information services
  • Give the same opportunities for collaboration and information exchange as in European countries and the North American research communities
cooperation
Cooperation
  • Establish a common Nordic infrastructure for the NR&E community by connecting the national nets.
  • New competence and services be created for the smaller communities.
  • The resources to be found in the national network organisations, with the local, university services operating the net.
  • A computer network would greatly increase bridging the large geographical distances caracteristic in the Nordic countries. Thus opportunities for research in remote communities would be greatly improved.
interim services
Interim services
  • In 1984, IBM donated machines and leased lines for EARN, European Academic Research Network (modelled on Bitnet)
  • Local Ethernets, private networks X.25, PAD services - chaos
  • Make popular services Nordic wide, X.400 mail EAN
  • EARN to Europe, DECnet/HEPNET for physics
  • Work to local groups, EARN in UNI-C, EAN in UNINETT etc.
difficult challenges
Difficult challenges
  • Firm belief and political pressure for CO OSI-protocols.
  • Standards slow in coming from ISO and CCIT
  • Slow development of common services.
  • Independent development of services in NORDUNET regarded as unrealistic
  • Reorientation of original goals
reorientation strategy
Reorientation strategy
  • Continued support of interim solutions, but prepare for OSI migration (!)
  • Interim solutions to connect to international networks, EARN, UUCP, DECnet and Internet
  • Active participation in European OSI-efforts in RARE and COSINE, to build competence
  • Migration pilots, file transfer, base for further work, JANET coloured books, ISODE (X.25 over IP) ?
  • Reliable standards and services still regarded as 10 years off (JANET)
in 1987 new possibilities
In 1987 new possibilities
  • No continuation of support for the EARN leased lines. NORDUNET urged to connect the main Nordic nodes.
  • A major technological breakthrough, bridges to run Ethernet over slow lines, Vitalink bridges.
  • Sudden realisation of a possible Nordic Ethernet connecting the major nodes
  • National Ethernets based on the same technology connect to a clean Nordic net.
  • Institutional Ethernets on national nets connect users.
  • The X.EARN project quickly adopted early 1988
the nordunet multiprotocol plug
The NORDUNET multiprotocol plug
  • the basic X.25 service
  • EARN and RSCS
  • DECnet
  • TCP/IP

The challenge not technolgy but organisation

The distributed service concept

An international, multiprotocol network

nordunet the operational net
NORDUnet,the operational net
  • One stop shop for lines, Scantele
  • 64 kb/s Copenhagen, Helsinki, Stockholm, Trondheim, 9.2 Reykjavik
  • Central node KTH, Stockholm
  • US NSFnet to Princeton via satellite, 56 kb/s
  • KTH connected Europe, EARN, HEPnet
  • Peering with EUnet
  • European interchange, GIX
  • Operating late 1988, official opening Oct.89
not only a network
Not only a network
  • Inter-Nordic work-groups created competence on many levels
  • Catalytic effect on national networks and early commercial introduction
  • Joint activities creating international recognition and status in international bodies
international recognition
International recognition
  • The first DNS root-server outside US
  • RIPE as European Internet coordinator
  • Participating and forming IEPG and IETF Operation WG, other IETF work, MIME
  • In RARE WG8-management introducing open support of protocols and services, including TCP/IP as well as ISO OSI work

(controversial!)

europe and tcp ip
Europe and TCP/IP
  • Work on service harmonisation and OSI migration continued
  • Einar Løvdals urge for TCP/IP migration met with mixed reactions (Trieste 1989)
  • Support from research communities collaborating w. US and Canada
  • RIPE formed 1989, RIPE NCC in 1992
  • Large European communities forged ahead with OSI based services

- and fell behind -

nordic internet penetration
Nordic Internet penetration

1999 97 1999 97

1 Canada 42,82 7 8 Australia 34,33 5

2 Sweden 41,42 8 9 Singapore 31,08 9

3 Finland 40,80 1 10 N.Zealand 26,49 6

4 U.S. 40,65 4 11 Netherland 25,56 13

5 Iceland 40,35 3 12 Switzerland 24,58 11

6 Denmark 39,60 10 13 United

  • Norway 37,96 2 Kingdom 23,64 12

% per capita

slide18

And finally TCP/IP

US link

The rest is history !

slide19
NORDUnet is now a limited company NORDUnet A/S,owned and financed by Nordic states or state institutions

DK - UNI-C NO - UNINETT

FI - Ministry of education SE - Högskoleverket IS - University of Iceland

Yearly

budgets

20 M$

Small secretariat

Director Peter Villemoes

10 M$

All work done

by partners

the network in 2001

KPNQwest

The network in 2001

USA

1866

1344

622

NETNOD

D-GIX

45

34

16

12

1

Géant

communication is cooperation
Communication is Cooperation
  • Services could not be done by one provider alone
  • The necessary level of competence could not be reached on a country by country basis
  • Institutional groups too small both in
    • people with interest and knowledge
    • resources and demanding users
  • Development cooperation required on all levels
the nordunet lesson
The NORDUNET lesson
  • Many institutions scattered across several countries worked together by each getting major responsibilities
  • Distributed projects create joint enthusiasm and work towards common goals
  • Shared responsibilities
  • All got benefit from building competence
  • Network communication is working together
slide23

Networks are communication

Communication is cooperation

etworks are cooperation

slide24

"Skalat madr rúnar rísta,

nema ráda vel kunni”

Egill Skallagrimsson

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