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Building and Constructing Academic Arguments. Rachel Grammer Writing Instructor Writing Center. Housekeeping. Muting Questions Tech trouble? http://support.citrixonline.com/en_US/GoToTraining Recording: http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/415.htm. Today’s Agenda. Arguments and Evidence.

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Building and constructing academic arguments

Building and Constructing Academic Arguments

Rachel Grammer

Writing Instructor

Writing Center


Housekeeping

  • Muting

  • Questions

  • Tech trouble? http://support.citrixonline.com/en_US/GoToTraining

  • Recording: http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/415.htm




Poll

What is an argumentative paper?

  • A persuasive work that argues against someone else’s ideas.

  • A persuasive work that starts a disagreement.

  • A persuasive work that shows a passionate emotional appeal.

  • A persuasive work that uses evidence to support a claim.


What do we mean when we say argumentative paper
What Do We Mean When We Say “Argumentative” Paper?

Argument

  • a reason given in proof or rebuttal

  • discourse intended to persuade

  • a coherent series of statements leading from a premise to a conclusion


Professional argument apa 3 07
Professional Argument (APA 3.07)

  • APA 3.07 states that arguments should be presented “in a professional, noncombative manner” (p.66).

  • Arguments are based in facts from research (peer reviewed journals, books, and scholarly websites). Use evidence to persuade your readers.


Types of evidence
Types of evidence

  • Statistics and data

  • Studies and experimental evidence

  • Facts supported by research

  • Expert commentary

  • Anecdotes

  • Analogies


Argumentative writing poll which is argumentative
Argumentative Writing Poll: Which is Argumentative?

A.

A paper describing to readers what happens physiologically to a person’s brain when that person eats chocolate.

B.

A paper persuading readers that chocolate, in moderation, has health benefits.




Build on evidence not opinion
Build on evidence, not opinion

Opinion-based:

Today, high school curricula are boring, unimaginative, and based on rote memorization.

Evidence-based:

Because high school history curricula are based on rote memorization (Smith, 2011), visual and kinetic learners often do not get the support they need.


Pair evidence with analysis different interpretations
Pair evidence with analysis: Different interpretations

According to recent data, 88% of patients in the United States needing to see a specialist are able to do so within a month (Roland, Guthrie, & Thome, 2012).

Therefore, more than 10% of the population needs to wait to receive what might be urgent medical care.

According to recent data, 88% of patients in the United States needing to see a specialist are able to do so within a month (Roland, Guthrie, & Thome, 2012). In other words, in terms of seeing a specialist, the U.S. health care system is meeting the needs of the majority of patients.


Ways to use evidence quoting
Ways to use evidence: Quoting

  • Captures information from a source, word for word

  • Must use “ ”

  • Must include a citation, with a page or paragraph number


Quoting
Quoting

  • A “dropped in” quote:

    • “Patients trusted their providers and believed that their healthcare was safe and of high quality” (Hyman & Silver, 2012, p. 417).

  • An integrated direct quote:

    • Hyman and Silver (2012) observed that “patients trusted their providers and believed that their healthcare was safe and of high quality” (p. 417).


Ways to use evidence summarizing
Ways to use evidence: Summarizing

  • Captures the source’s main idea(s)

  • Puts source information/ideas into own words

  • Is significantly shorter than original

  • Must include a citation


Ways to use evidence paraphrasing
Ways to use evidence: Paraphrasing

“A restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form” (Merriam-Webster, 2012)

  • Captures more detail

  • Puts source information/ideas into own words and sentence structure

  • Is usually shorter than the original, but longer than a summary

  • Must include a citation


Why do we paraphrase
Why do we paraphrase?

  • Helps you work through your own ideas

  • Shows readers that you understand the source information

  • Helps your academic voice come through in your writing


Ineffective paraphrasing
Ineffective paraphrasing

  • “Thesaurus paraphrasing”

    • Using your own words but keeping the source’s sentence construction.

  • “Patchwork paraphrasing”

    • Combining parts of sentences or phrases from sources into sentences without paraphrasing


Paraphrasing example
Paraphrasing example

Original:

Patients trusted their providers and believed that their healthcare was safe and of high quality, despite considerable empirical evidence to the contrary.

Thesaurus paraphrasing:

Patients providers and in the safety and quality of their healthcare, despite much evidence suggesting (Hyman & Silver, 2010).

believed

trusted

otherwise

A better paraphrase:

Even though research raised safety and quality concerns for patient care, patients still placed trust in their healthcare providers (Hyman & Silver, 2010).


Paraphrasing example1
Paraphrasing example

Source #1:Patients trusted their providers and believed that their healthcare was safe and of high quality, despite considerable empirical evidence to the contrary.

Source #2:In recent years there has been increasing understanding

within the healthcare industry that various factors—such as the

emphasis on production, efficiency and cost controls, organizational and

individual inability to acknowledge fallibility, and professional norms for

perfectionism among healthcare providers—combine to create a culture

contradictory to the requirements of patient safety.

Patchwork paraphrasing:In recent years there has been increasing understanding within the healthcare industry that various factors combine to create a culture contradictory to the requirements of patient safety, even thoughpatients trust their providers and believe that their healthcare is safe and of high quality (Hyman & Silver, 2010; Nieva & Sorra, 2003).



Paraphrasing practice
Paraphrasing practice

Paraphrase the following paragraph:

“Anderson separates the conference into two parts of a conversation about writing. In the first part, the student leads while the instructor listens; then the instructor connects the writing to the student’s agenda and thinks about what to teach. In the second part, the instructor takes the lead, using both the student’s set agenda and writing as the impetus for providing critical feedback and a specific mini-lesson related to the student’s writing; the student listens, responds, and tries to implement the instructor’s suggestions” (Hewett, 2010, p. 14).


To use strong evidence
To use strong evidence…

  • Persuade the reader using credible sources as evidence.

  • Paraphrase to demonstrate understanding, maintain academic voice, integrate evidence with the surrounding text, and avoid plagiarism.

  • Paraphrasing resource: http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/295.htm



Essential parts of an argumentative paper
Essential Parts of an Argumentative Paper

  • Introduction

    • Background

    • Opposing side(s)

    • Thesis statement

  • Body of Paper

    • Body paragraphs based in evidence from research

    • Opposing sides may also be part of the body paragraphs

  • Conclusion


Introduction
Introduction

  • Begin your introduction with a hook—a sentence or two that catches your readers’ attention and leads in to your topic.

    • A statistic related to your topic

    • A statement of a problem or popular misconception related to your topic

    • A factual statement or a summary of an interesting event related to your topic


Thesis statement
Thesis Statement

  • Encompasses the main point(s) of your paper

  • Acts as road map

  • Located in the introduction (usually at or near the end)

  • Argumentative

    • Not a question

    • Not a topic

    • Not a fact

    • Not a statement about the paper’s purpose

    • Not a statement about what the paper discusses


Tips for your thesis
Tips for Your Thesis

Ask yourself:

  • Can someone disagree with it?

  • Can you base your argument on scholarly evidence? Or are you relying on opinion, religious belief, or morality?

  • Is it narrow enough that you can discuss it with detailed, in-depth evidence?


Theses analysis
Theses Analysis

Gamification: Using game designs and techniques in nongame situations.


Which is the strongest thesis
Which is the Strongest Thesis?

1. Many companies are using gamification techniques.

2. How are companies using gamification to increase benefit employers and employees?

3. This paper will discuss how companies are using gamification techniques to benefit employers and employees.

4. This paper will explore the question of how companies are using gamification to benefit employers and employees.

5. Gamification in the workplace has several benefits to employers and employees.


Poll which is the stronger thesis
Poll: Which is the Stronger Thesis?

  • With my new knowledge of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, I am better prepared to address the needs of my students.

  • In this paper, I will discuss what I learned about child development in this course and how I have grown as an early childhood education teacher.


Paper organization
Paper Organization

  • Introduction

  • Thesis

  • Body paragraphs

  • Conclusion



Refutation arguments
Refutation Arguments

  • Opposing side will be part of the body paragraphs rather than just in the introduction

  • Use transitions

    • To compare: as well, similar to, consistent with, likewise, too

    • To contrast: on the other hand, however, although, conversely, rather than



Conclusions what to avoid
Conclusions: What To Avoid

  • State the thesis for first time

  • Introduce new topics, ideas, or evidence

  • End with a body paragraph

  • Conclude something you haven’t proven

  • Conclude beyond the scope of your argument


Conclusions wrapping up your argument
Conclusions: Wrapping Up Your Argument

  • Reiterate your thesis and the main points of your paper in light of the evidence you presented

  • Answer the so what? question

  • Keep readers thinking

  • Look forward to the future—what needs to happen next?

  • Provide a sense of closure


Summary tips for argumentative essays
Summary: Tips for Argumentative Essays

  • Begin by identifying a clear, argumentative thesis

  • Base your evidence in research

  • Address the other side(s)

  • Avoid emotional language

  • Analyze the evidence using logic and reason

  • Ask yourself, is this objective? Am I writing as a social scientist?


Last steps
Last Steps

  • Check that your evidence still supports your thesis

  • Check that your conclusion supports your thesis



Questions

Questions

Now: Use the Q&A box on your screen

After the webinar: Email the tutors at [email protected]


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