Basidomycota
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Basidomycota. Maggie Blackmon, Carolyn Poliseo , Jaime Swank. Hyphae. Septate hyphae Septa divide hyphae into cells Pores allow nuclei, ribosomes, and mitochondria to travel. Spore formation. Sexual or asexual Formed from hyphae, basida , yeast, and other basidiospores Cool video.

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Basidomycota

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Basidomycota

Basidomycota

Maggie Blackmon, Carolyn Poliseo, Jaime Swank


Hyphae

Hyphae

  • Septate hyphae

    • Septa divide hyphae into cells

    • Pores allow nuclei, ribosomes, and mitochondria to travel


Spore formation

Spore formation

  • Sexual or asexual

  • Formed from hyphae, basida, yeast, and other basidiospores

  • Cool video

Spores

Sterigma

Basida

Hyphae


Spore formation1

Spore formation

  • Spores formed on basidia, released from sterigma

  • The hilar droplet releases the spore through "surface tension catapult.“

    • Causes a sudden shift in the center of mass of the spore

    • Launches spores at 25,000g


Basidiomycota as decomposers

Basidiomycota as Decomposers

  • Saprobe: a microbe that decomposes organic remains from dead organisms

    • Ex: Nidulariaceae(bird’s nest fungi), shelf fungi, and Marasmiusoreades


Basidiomycota as parasites

Basidiomycotaas Parasites

  • Pathogens

    • Pathogens: Any agent (in this case a fungus) that causes disease

    • Ex: Cryptococcus (seen in humans)


Basidiomycota as parasites1

Basidiomycota as Parasites

  • Ex:

    • Rust fungi- produces reddish or brownish spots on leaves of plants

      • Phragmidiumviolaceumblackberry bushes produces pustules of violet teliospores

      • Melampsoridiumbetulinum(birch rust) forms certain spores on birch and larch leaves.

  • Smut fungi- affect plants’ reproductive systems

    • Ustilagonudaforms teliospores (7-8 µms) on wheat


Basidiomycota as parasites2

Basidiomycota as Parasites

  • Symbionts

    • Symbiosis: an intimate association between individuals from two species

    • Ex:

      • Mycorrhizae- symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular plant

      • Symbiosis between Lepiotaceae and leafcutter ants


Life cycle of basidiomycota monokaryotic phase

Life Cycle of Basidiomycota: Monokaryotic Phase

  • Basidiospores (haploid sexual spores) are released from a mature fruiting body (basidiocarp, AKA mushroom)

  • A spore lands in fertile soil and germinates

  • This grows into a hypha, which grows into a mycelium

    • This is a primary mycelium, meaning each cell is monokaryotic (one nucleus)

    • It has only one type of nucleus (+ or -)


Dikaryotic phase

Dikaryotic Phase

  • If this mycelium meets up with another primary mycelium of the other nucleus type, they form a dikaryotic (two nuclei) cell

    • This is now called the secondary mycelium

  • The mycelium grows until the environment triggers it to grow into an aboveground mass

  • The basidiocarp forms a cap, underneath it are gills made of hyphae and basidia


  • Spore formation2

    Spore Formation

    • Basidia are dikaryotic, they contain a nucleus from each mating type

    • To prepare for meiosis, the nuclei fuse in a process called karyogamy

    • Next, the cell undergoes meiosis and four nuclei are formed, two of each mating type

    • Spores are produced and each gets a haploid nucleus

    • The spores break off and the cycle begins again

    • It is estimated that a mushroom with a cap 7.5 cm across makes 40 million spores an hour


    Basidomycota

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    Roles of basidiomycota decomposers

    Roles of Basidiomycota: Decomposers

    • Decomposers of plant and waste materials – key in carbon cycle

    • Can attack houses and other wood structures causing economic damage


    Basidomycota

    Food

    • Agaricusbisporus(common mushroom)

      • Help heart health and immune system

    • Lentinusedodes(Shiitake mushroom)

      • Antitumor, cholesterol-lowering, and virus-inhibiting effects

    • Pleurotusostreatus(oyster mushroom)

      • Antioxidant and anti-bacterial effects


    Pathogens

    Pathogens

    • Cryptococcus neoformans- human pathogen

      • Enters through lungs and can invade other organs, like the skin and brain

      • Opportunistic infection for AIDS patients

      • Also affects cats and dogs

    • Some Basidiomycetes are poisonous when eaten

      • Amanita phalloides (death cap) – caused the death of two Roman emperors and a pope


    Other uses

    Other Uses

    • Amanita phalloidesproduces a toxin called phalloidin which is used in fluorescent stains by cell biologists to see cytoskeletons

    • Some enzymes produced by Basidiomycetes are used in paper production

    • Chemicals produced by some mushrooms are hallucinogens

      • Psilocybin mushrooms – “magic mushrooms”


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