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Welcome Back to Immunohematology

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Welcome Back to Immunohematology. Other Red Cell Antigen Systems Part II – Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNSs. Kell System. COOH. NH 2. NH 2. COOH. Kx K. Kell System. Main antigens are K (Kell) and its allele, k (Cellano). Antigens are glycoproteins.

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slide1

Welcome Back to Immunohematology

Other Red Cell Antigen Systems

Part II – Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNSs

kell system
KellSystem

COOH

NH2

NH2

COOH

Kx K

kell system1
KellSystem
  • Main antigens are K (Kell) and its allele, k (Cellano).
  • Antigens are glycoproteins.
  • K is second only to D in its immunogenicity.
  • Antigens are not affected by routine enzymes.
kell system antibodies
Kell System Antibodies
  • Usually IgG
  • React best in the Coombs phase (AHG).
  • Do not show dosage.
  • Some anti-K antibodies activate complement. Other antibodies in the Kell system do not.
dosage
Dosage
  • An antibody that reacts stronger with a cell that has homozygous expression of an antigen than it does with a cell showing heterozygous antigen expression is said to show dosage.
kell system2
Naturally occurring?

HTR?

HDFN?

Clinically significant?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Kell System
duffy system
Duffy System

Fya/Fyb

NH2

COOH

duffy system1
Duffy System
  • The most common alleles are Fya and Fyb.
  • Antigens are glycoproteins.
  • Antigen frequency varies among the races.
    • 65% of whites are Fya positive, while only 10% of blacks are Fya positive.
    • The most common phenotype in blacks is Fy(a-b-) at 68%. This phenotype in whites is extremely rare.
  • Destroyed by enzymes.
duffy system antibodies
Duffy System Antibodies
  • Are IgG.
  • React best at the AHG phase.
  • Show dosage.
  • Some Duffy antibodies activate complement.
duffy system2
Naturally occurring?

HTR?

HDFN?

Clinically significant?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Duffy System
kidd system
Kidd System

Jka/Jkb

NH2

COOH

kidd system1
Kidd System
  • The major alleles of the Kidd system are Jka and Jkb.
  • Antigens are glycoproteins.
  • Antigen frequency varies among races.
    • Jk(a-b-) phenotype extremely rare.
  • Not very immunogenic.
  • Enhanced by enzymes.
kidd system antibodies
Kidd System Antibodies
  • Usually IgG.
  • Best detected at the AHG phase.
  • Show dosage.
  • Noted for ability to activate complement.
  • Notorious for causing delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions.
kidd system2
Naturally occurring?

HTR?

HDFN?

Clinically significant?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Kidd System
mnss system
MNSs System

MN

NH2

NH2

Ss

COOH

COOH

Glycophorin A Glycophorin B

mnss system1
MNSs System
  • The major antigens of this system are:
    • M and its allele N
    • S and its allele s
  • The most common phenotypes are:
    • M+N+
    • S-s+
  • Antigens can be destroyed by enzymes.
mnss system antibodies
MNSs System Antibodies
  • Anti-M and -N are usually IgM antibodies.
    • Many examples of IgG anti-M’s.
  • Anti-M may react over a wide temperature range (wide thermal amplitude).
  • Anti-N reacts best in saline (immediate spin).
  • Anti-S and -s are IgG antibodies.
    • React best at AHG.
  • Show dosage.
  • May activate complement.
mnss system2
Naturally occurring?

M & N yes

S & s usually immune

HTR?

S & s yes

sometimes M, N usually not

HDFN?

S & s yes

M & N no

Clinically significant?

M & N usually not

S & s yes

MNSs System
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