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Global overview of marine fisheries by S.M. Garcia and I. De Leiva Moreno (FAO Fisheries Department). Prepared for the Reykjavic Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, 1-4 October 2001.

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global overview of marine fisheries by s m garcia and i de leiva moreno fao fisheries department

Global overview of marine fisheriesby S.M. Garciaand I. De Leiva Moreno(FAO Fisheries Department)

Prepared for the Reykjavic Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, 1-4 October 2001

global overview of marine fisheries by s m garcia and i de leiva moreno fao fisheries department1

Global overview of marine fisheriesby S.M. Garciaand I. De Leiva Moreno(FAO Fisheries Department)

Where do we stand ?

Prepared for the Reykjavic Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, 1-4 October 2001

outline
Outline
  • The State of the Resources:
  • The Fishing Industry:
  • The Governance Approaches:
  • Conclusions
1 the state of the resources
1. The State of the Resources
  • Global Situation
  • Global trends
  • Regional perspective
slide5

Recovering

The state of stocks in 1999

Depleted

Overexploited

Fully exploited

Moderately exploited

Undeveloped

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

slide6

Upper limit (

FAO, 1971)

Global trend in landings

100

EEZs Claims

million tonnes)

50

Production (

1800

1840

1880

1920

1960

2000

Year

slide7

Trends in state of stocks

60%

Fully Fished

50%

40%

Moderately fished: U+M

30%

20%

Overfished: O+D+R

10%

0%

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

slide8

Phase IV -

Senescent

Development phases: World

100%

90%

80%

70%

Phase III -

60%

Mature

Percentageofresources

50%

40%

Phase II -

Developing

30%

20%

Phase I -

10%

Undeveloped

0%

1951

1953

1955

1957

1959

1961

1963

1965

1967

1969

1971

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

1993

slide9

Ratio between present and historical landings

1

.

Antarctic

0.14

ANT

2.

Atlantic, Southeast

0.39

ASE

3.

Pacific, Southeast

0.43

PSE

4.

Atlantic, Northwest

0.44

ANW

5.

Atlantic, Western Central

0.71

ACW

6.

Pacific, Eastern Central

0.73

PEC

7.

Med

it

. & Black Sea

0.81

MBS

8.

Pacific, Northeast

0.83

PNE

9.

Atlantic Southwest

0.86

ASW

10.

Atlantic Eastern Central

0.87

AEC

11.

Atlantic Northeast

ANE

0.92

12.

Indian Western

0.94

IW

13.

Pacific Central Western

14.

Pacific Southwest

PCW

1.00

15.

Pacific Northwest

PSW

1.00

16.

Indian Eastern

PNW

1.00

1.00

IE

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

slide10

North Pacific

North Atlantic

% of Stocks Exploited Beyond MSY

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

slide11

Antarctic

Tropical

Atlantic

Tropical

Pacific

% of Stocks Exploited Beyond MSY

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

slide12

State of ICES Stocks: 1970-1998

0%

Good

1976

20%

Buffer

40%

60%

Bad

80%

80%

100%

1982

1998

1978

1986

1990

1994

1970

1974

2 the fishing industry
2. The Fishing Industry
  • The fishing fleet
  • The fishers
  • The technology
  • Production and trade
  • Contribution to food security
slide14

Corrected

Non corrected

Trends in World Fleet Capacity

40

30

GrossRegisteredTonnage (106tons)

20

10

0

1990

2000

1970

1980

1960

slide15

Number of fishers

40

30

World fishers and fish farmers (in millions)

20

10

1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

fishing technology
Fishing technology
  • High technology adoption rate;
  • Improved fishing range and capacity;
  • Improved preservation and quality;
  • Improved safety on board
  • Reduced environmental impact;
  • Improved MCS
slide17

100

Capture

80

60

Million tonnes

40

20

mariculture

0

2000

1990

1950

1960

1970

1980

Production of marine fisheries

slide18

Rate of increase of landings

0.15

0.10

0.05

Annual rate of increase

0.00

-0.05

-0.10

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

slide19

Imports

Exports

50

50

40

40

US$

Billion

dollars

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

0

1993

1999

1993

1999

Developing countries

Developed countries

Fish trade

slide20

Fish and food security

11.0

0.90

10.0

0.80

9.0

0.70

Marine food / capita

8.0

% used for human food

0.60

7.0

0.50

6.0

0.40

5.0

4.0

0.30

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2 the governance
2. The Governance
  • Approaches
  • Performance
  • Implementation problems
  • Regional fishery bodies
  • Improved frameworks
  • Ecosystemic considerations
  • The FAO Code of Conduct
management approaches
Management approaches
  • No global inventory;
  • No universal approach;
  • Mainly free and open access;
  • Some limited-entry systems;
  • Few rights-based systems;
  • Abundance of “technical measures”;
  • New global focus: capacity control, MCS, IUU, by-catch, vulnerable species, critical habitats, coral reefs, MPAs,.
management performance
Management performance

There is room for improvement!

  • overfishing, collapses, endangered species;
  • overcapacity, subsidies, economic inefficiencies;
  • environmental variability; Forecasting;
  • environmental impact of fishing; habitat, discards;
  • environmental impact on fishery resources;
  • compliance (IUU);
  • Ineffective regional fishery bodies.
  • Integration into coastal areas management
implementation problems
Implementation problems

There are enough principles and guidance, but:

  • Equity problems: allocation
  • lack of institutional capacity (e.g. decentralization)
  • declining capacity in conventional research and statistics
  • lack of capacity in the new research required
  • less than effective regional fishery bodies
  • impact of globalization
  • Broadening requirements (ecosystems, integration)
  • Mismatch between ecosystems and jurisdiction boundaries
regional fishery bodies
Regional Fishery Bodies

Not effective enough. Not enough power.

  • failure to accept and implement international instruments;
  • lack of willingness to delegate responsibility
  • ineffective enforcement of management measures;
  • lack of secretariat resources and capacity;
  • weak decision-making processes;
  • weak conflict-resolution mechanisms;
  • inadequate scientific support;
  • lax use of the scientific advice received.
improved frameworks
Improved Frameworks

Significant improvement in a decade!

  • Formal recognition of the overfishing/overcapacity issue
  • UNCED (1992)
  • Compliance Agreement (1993)
  • 1982 Convention intered into force (1994)
  • UN Fish Stock Agreement (1995)
  • FAO Code of Conduct (1995) and guidelines
  • FAO IPOAs
  • Formal recognition of the need for an ecosystem approach
ecosystemic considerations

converging

Ecosystemic Considerations

Significant changes occurred in the decade!

  • Conventional management : weakly ecosystemic
  • Awareness has raised since UNCED (1992)
  • New instruments are available (CBD)
  • New programmes are ongoing (ICRI, MPAs)
  • New collaborations build up: e.g. FAO-CITES, FAO-UNEP
  • Precautionary approach
  • Sustainability indicators
fao code of conduct
FAO Code of Conduct

Reflects consensus about :

  • conservation of the aquatic ecosystems , monitoring & minimisation of environmental impacts of fishing and non-fishing activities;
  • protection and restoration of fishery resources, their environment, critical habitats, biodiversity, associated and dependent species, and endangered species;
  • prohibition of destructive fishing
  • the precautionary approach;
  • participatory management;
  • risks related to climate change
the resources
The Resources
  • Many resources require significant improvement in governance to recover or avoid being overfished
  • The precautionary approach may help if fully applied, using MSY as a limit.
  • Risk assessment and risk management need to become standard approaches;
  • An ecosystem perspective is required
the fishing industry
The Fishing Industry
  • It achieved a lot in a difficult environment;
  • It provides significant benefits;
  • It benefited a lot from Governments;
  • It is confronted with increasing societal requirements and a declining resource base;
  • Its role is fundamental.
  • It cannot afford not to face responsibilities.

Its own sustainability is at stake!!!

the governance
The Governance
  • Conventional governance has spread;
  • It faces large scale social, economic and environmental problems;
  • It has improved its framework;...but
  • ...needs much stronger political will;
  • Its resources might be insufficient to face broadening societal requirements;
  • More attention to small-scale fisheries is needed.
slide33

Fisheries

at the crossroad

  • Fisheries have significantly contributed to human development and can still do so;
  • There are problem areas and avenues for positive change;
  • Change will never be at no cost; but
slide34

Global overview of marine fisheries

The status quo

is not an option !

Thank you

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