On The Road Real-World EV User Experience. The CABLED ( C oventry & B irmingham L ow E missions D emonstrator) program aims to evaluate real world usage of low carbon vehicles to reduce city congestion and emissions.
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The CABLED (Coventry & Birmingham Low Emissions Demonstrator) program aims to evaluate real world usage of low carbon vehicles to reduce city congestion and emissions
Automatic Transmission 1930-194616 years
Ballpoint Pen1938-19457 years
Zipper 1883-191330 years
Instant Coffee1934-195622 years
C = (ABD) > X
C = Change
A = Level of dissatisfaction with status quo
B = Desirability of the proposed change or end state
D = Practicality of the change (minimal risk and disruption)
X = ‘Cost’ of changing
Automotive industry particularly conservative due to levels of investment and tight margins
Although other transport modes, such as bus, train & cycling can help reduce emissions and congestion, the use of private cars will remain and important means of transport in any future system
Number of trips
National Transport Survey 2009
National Transport Survey 2009
People Travelling in Vehicle
Source: GM Study & SAE 890874
Technology roadmaps provide high level trends, but are often dependant on external determinants e.g. energy pricing, taxation and government policy
RAC low carbon vehicle Brighton run (same route, same day), shows considerable variation across same vehicle models and types
Number of cars in the trial
Typical vehicle speeds follow the expected profile for normal city/urban driving patterns dominated by traffic flow, with occasional highway excursions
High idle times (zero speed) removed for clarity
Average daily mileage for all EV trips is in line with national transport surveys for petrol and diesel vehicles. Total daily use of the vehicle is less than half of the battery capacity of a typical EV.
Individual journey distance covered for EV’s indicates a bias towards short trips, consistent with normal driving styles seen with conventional petrol and diesel vehicles.
Users journey durations (minutes). This indicates that most journeys are of short duration, giving opportunity for re-charging. Vehicles are typically parked for >95% of the time in a 24 our period.
ACD: Average Charge Duration time (hours:minutes)
National Transport Survey 2005
Range anxiety significantly reduced (down from 100% to <20% in three months)
Primary concerns shifted to cost and convenience (residual value/battery life)
Self directed adjustments in driving behaviors, such as use of heater/AC
‘Green’ interests do not translate into behaviors
- Key behavioral changes in response to financial incentives
Owners want to ‘own’ the vehicle, but willing to compromise on battery leasing.
EV’s not for everyone – Some self-selection present in the trial users (expensive lease, early adopters, off-street parking requirement, typically second car, etc.)
London congestion zone has influenced purchase of new vehicles and use of public transport
Plans for expanded and additional congestion zone in other regions are well advanced
8,500 Plugged-in-Places public charging points being installed – Reduced from 12,000 based on London trial
Government very focused on private sector funding carrying the investment burden going forward
Source: Transport for London
Mode: FullHEV & FCV
Mode: FCV & public
Mode: MildHEV & BEV
Mode: BEV & public
Future personal transport choices likely to be determined by evaluation of specific personal lifestyle needs, rather than adopting a flexible solution, such as an ICE vehicle
Source: Bironi-Bird 2010
New Car Sales (Not Vehicle Parc)
Prius hybrid sales still account for <5% of Toyota sales after nearly 15 years on the market
Despite UK government incentives, EV sales less than 10% of targets
(680EV’s Jan-Sept 2011 against 8,600 target for Jan 2012)
The journey to large scale take-up of BEV’s is probably longer than we anticipated, has some twists and turns along the way. There is more than one possible road to our destination, but we are heading in the right direction and will get there soon…..