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On The Road Real-World EV User Experience. The CABLED ( C oventry & B irmingham L ow E missions D emonstrator) program aims to evaluate real world usage of low carbon vehicles to reduce city congestion and emissions.

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On The Road Real-World EV User Experience

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On The Road Real-World EV User Experience


The CABLED (Coventry & Birmingham Low Emissions Demonstrator) program aims to evaluate real world usage of low carbon vehicles to reduce city congestion and emissions


Leadtime from functional concept to volume production can be a longer path than is often assumed

Automatic Transmission 1930-194616 years

Radio1890-191424 years

Radar1904-193935 years

Helicopter1904-194137 years

Television1884-194763 years

Ballpoint Pen1938-19457 years

Zipper 1883-191330 years

Instant Coffee1934-195622 years


Beckhard’s change model gives us a simple way to assess the difficulties of implementing change

C = (ABD) > X

C = Change

A = Level of dissatisfaction with status quo

B = Desirability of the proposed change or end state

D = Practicality of the change (minimal risk and disruption)

X = ‘Cost’ of changing

Automotive industry particularly conservative due to levels of investment and tight margins


Although other transport modes, such as bus, train & cycling can help reduce emissions and congestion, the use of private cars will remain and important means of transport in any future system

Number of trips

National Transport Survey 2009


Typical transport needs indicate that compact vehicles have and important part to play in current and future transport requirements.

National Transport Survey 2009

People Travelling in Vehicle


We know from previous studies that people use their existing petrol and diesel vehicles for shorter trips than they think…..

  • >90% Trips engine speed <3000rpm

  • 50-60% Trips oil/water temp. <65°C

  • 20-23% of Urban trip duration, engine is at idle.

Source: GM Study & SAE 890874


One potential solution to this problem is the adoption of Electric Vehicles (BEV)


Technology roadmaps provide high level trends, but are often dependant on external determinants e.g. energy pricing, taxation and government policy

Source: NAIGT


Well to Wheels CO2 production of different powertrain technologies


Grid mix makes dramatic differences in vehicle CO2 impacts. Grid mix changes are long term strategic drivers.


Real-world user experience can vary considerably from test and official cycle data

RAC low carbon vehicle Brighton run (same route, same day), shows considerable variation across same vehicle models and types


Understanding of duty cycle development vital for optimized vehicle architecture and operation


CABLED Consortium Members

Academia

Local Government

Project

Management

Infrastructure

Vehicle Manufacturers


CABLED trial part of UK Technology Strategy Board 350 demonstrator of ultra low carbon vehicles

Mitsubishi

Tata

Smart

LTi

LandRover

Microcab

Number of cars in the trial

25

25

45

5

5

8

H2

Public Trial

Industry Trial

Electric

Hybrid

Fuel Cell

  • Typical Specification for EV:

    • Max range: 80-100 miles

    • Recharge times: 6-8 hours

    • Max speed: 70-80 mph

http://www.cabled.org.uk/


Data via satellite gathered from each vehicle 24/7 over 12 month period/user

  • Map Usage of vehicles over extended period

    • Familiarly gained with vehicle (changing behaviours)

    • Seasonality effects observed

    • Comparative studies done with information flow

      • Conventional Vs EV range

      • Charge-point location/number

      • Efficiency & state of charge data

      • Charging cost incentives


Journey start times indicate full range of journey types (work, leisure, shopping, etc.)


Vehicles received full usage throughout hot & cold seasons. No significant seasonality effects observed on battery performance or range


Typical vehicle speeds follow the expected profile for normal city/urban driving patterns dominated by traffic flow, with occasional highway excursions

High idle times (zero speed) removed for clarity


Average daily mileage for all EV trips is in line with national transport surveys for petrol and diesel vehicles. Total daily use of the vehicle is less than half of the battery capacity of a typical EV.


Daily mileage variation across users related to home & work locations


Daily mileage showed some signs of increasing with confidence over user lease period


CABLED vehicles usage comparable to expected typical journey data from National Transport Survey


Individual journey distance covered for EV’s indicates a bias towards short trips, consistent with normal driving styles seen with conventional petrol and diesel vehicles.


Users journey durations (minutes). This indicates that most journeys are of short duration, giving opportunity for re-charging. Vehicles are typically parked for >95% of the time in a 24 our period.


Charge used per journey indicates adequate range for most onward travel


Charging pattern of cars on the trial (no incentives)


Charging done for convenience at locations of high residency time (no incentives)

ACD 2:35

ACD: Average Charge Duration time (hours:minutes)

ACD 2:32

ACD 2:36

ACD 1:04


Charging initiated throughout the day dependant upon opportunity and need


Charge pattern highly variable across users dependant on personal circumstances and habits


Using data from conventional (petrol & diesel car) trips, we see that EV’s maximum range can cover over 98% of typical user daily trips

EV Range

National Transport Survey 2005


User perceptions altered by exposure to EV trial. Often counter intuitive.

Range anxiety significantly reduced (down from 100% to <20% in three months)

Primary concerns shifted to cost and convenience (residual value/battery life)

Self directed adjustments in driving behaviors, such as use of heater/AC

‘Green’ interests do not translate into behaviors

- Key behavioral changes in response to financial incentives

Owners want to ‘own’ the vehicle, but willing to compromise on battery leasing.

EV’s not for everyone – Some self-selection present in the trial users (expensive lease, early adopters, off-street parking requirement, typically second car, etc.)


Congestion zones and other legislative incentives have had largest effect on technology adoption rates

London congestion zone has influenced purchase of new vehicles and use of public transport

Plans for expanded and additional congestion zone in other regions are well advanced


UK Plugged-in-Places charging infrastructure programs

8,500 Plugged-in-Places public charging points being installed – Reduced from 12,000 based on London trial

Government very focused on private sector funding carrying the investment burden going forward


Stratified approach to charging infrastructure placement – Example London 2015

Source: Transport for London


Personal travel patterns likely to be more significant factor in transport choices in future

Rural Transport

Mode: FullHEV & FCV

City

City

Inter-City Transport

Mode: FCV & public

City

Sub-Urban Transport

Mode: MildHEV & BEV

Urban Transport

Mode: BEV & public


Future personal transport choices likely to be determined by evaluation of specific personal lifestyle needs, rather than adopting a flexible solution, such as an ICE vehicle

Source: Bironi-Bird 2010

location

Application

Range


Ultra low carbon technologies are often subject to aggressive adoption projections

New Car Sales (Not Vehicle Parc)

Prius hybrid sales still account for <5% of Toyota sales after nearly 15 years on the market

Despite UK government incentives, EV sales less than 10% of targets

(680EV’s Jan-Sept 2011 against 8,600 target for Jan 2012)


The journey to large scale take-up of BEV’s is probably longer than we anticipated, has some twists and turns along the way. There is more than one possible road to our destination, but we are heading in the right direction and will get there soon…..


Questions


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