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Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning - Deny A. Kwaryhttp://www.kwary.netAirl...


Lexical Semantics (cf. p.274). Semantic properties: The components of meaning of a word.Semantic feature: A notational device for expressing the presence or absence of semantic properties by pluses and minuses.Example of componential analysis:baby is [ young], [ human], [

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Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning

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Semantics the analysis of meaning l.jpg

Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning

Deny A. Kwary

http://www.kwary.net

Airlangga University


Lexical semantics cf p 274 l.jpg

Lexical Semantics (cf. p.274)

  • Semantic properties: The components of meaning of a word.

  • Semantic feature: A notational device for expressing the presence or absence of semantic properties by pluses and minuses.

  • Example of componential analysis:

    baby is [+ young], [+ human], [– abstract].


Identify the features 1 l.jpg

Identify the features (1)

1. (a) widow, mother, sister, aunt, maid

(b) widower, father, brother, uncle, valet

  • The (a) and (b) words are

  • The (a) words are

  • The (b) words are

[+ human]

[+ female]

[+ male]

2. (a) bachelor, paperboy, pope, chief

(b) bull, rooster, drake, ram

  • The (a) and (b) words are

  • The (a) words are

  • The (b) words are

[+ male]

[+ human]

[+ animal]


Identify the features 2 l.jpg

Identify the features (2)

3. (a) table, stone, pencil, cup, house, ship

(b) milk, alcohol, rice, soup, mud

  • The (a) words are

  • The (b) words are

[+ count]

[- count]

4. (a) pine, elm, sycamore

(b) dandelion, aster, daisy

  • The (a) and (b) words are

  • The (a) words are

  • The (b) words are

[+ plant]

[+ tree]

[+ flower]


Semantic relations among words p 269 l.jpg

Semantic Relations among Words (p. 269)

  • Synonymy: words that have the same meanings, e.g. start & begin.

  • Antonymy: words that are opposites in meanings, e.g. hot & cold.

Synonymy or Antonymy (p. 307)

  • Flourish – thrive

  • Intelligent – stupid

  • Casual – informal

  • Flog – whip

  • Drunk – sober

  • synonym

  • antonym

  • synonym

  • synonym

  • antonym


Semantic relations among words cf page 270 with critical notes l.jpg

Semantic Relations among Words (cf. page 270; with critical notes)

  • Polysemy: A word which has two or more related meanings, e.g. bright: ‘shining’ ; ‘intelligent’

  • Homonymy: A word which has two or more entirely distinct meanings, e.g. club: ‘a social organization’ ; ‘a blunt weapon’.

  • Homophony: Different words pronounced the same but spelled differently, e.g. two and too.

  • Homography: Different words spelled the same but pronounced differently, e.g. minute and minute.


Identifying homophones l.jpg

Identifying homophones

1. [steə] 

1. Stair, stare

2. [weist] 

2. waste, waist

3. [si:liη] 

3. sealing, ceiling

4. [kju:] 

4. cue, queue

5. [sent] 

5. sent, cent, scent


Slide8 l.jpg

Identifying homographs

  • Read

  • Wind

  • Live

  • Tear

  • Invalid

  • Bow

  • Dove


Identifying homonyms in jokes l.jpg

Identifying Homonyms in Jokes

1. Time flies like an arrow

Fruit flies like a banana

2. Policeman: Why have you parked your car here?

Motorist: Because the sign says “Fine for Parking”.

3. Customer: Have you got half-inch nails?

Ironmonger: Yes, sir.

Customer: Then could you scratch my back. It’s very itchy


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More semantic relations among words

  • Hyponymy: Words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word, e.g. isosceles and equilateral are hyponyms of the word triangle.

  • Metonymy: A word substituted for another word with which it is closely associated, e.g. diamond for a baseball field.

  • Retronymy: An expression that would once have been redundant, but which societal or technoligical changes have made nonredundant, e.g. silent movies movies  silent movies


That s all for today see you next week l.jpg

That’s All For TodaySee You Next Week

Deny A. Kwary

http://www.kwary.net

Airlangga University