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### Chemistry 112

Models of the Atom

Development of Atomic Models

- A shortcoming of the discovery of the nucleus and advancements in an atomic model was that it failed to explain chemical behavior
- A model that focused on the electron was needed
- Bohr built on Rutherford’s model to include the energy within an atom
- He suggested that electrons existed within circular paths, called orbitals, outside the nucleus
- Every electron within an orbital possesses a certain amount of energy
- They were then called energy levels

The Energy of Electrons

- The e- with the lowest energy are found in the first energy level
- e- can move from one orbital to another but only if it gains or loses energy
- The further an e- is away from the nucleus, the more energy it possesses
- The amount of energy an e- must absorb/release to move from one orbital to another is called a quantum
- The amount of energy to move from one orbital to the next is not always the same

Bohr’s Model

- The model of the atom was better understood but still failed to explain all the properties of atoms with atomic numbers greater than hydrogen
- Information was being gathered by other scientists on waves and energy that did not correspond with Bohr’s model

Quantum Mechanical Model

- Schrodinger used information about electron motion to devise and solve a mathematical equation that described the behavior of the electron
- The amount of energy an e- possesses is still considered fixed but the pathway is not
- QMM takes into consideration the amount of energy an e- has and how likely it is to be found in a certain location (probability)
- e- are most likely to be found close to the nucleus

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