Learn and present your speech the canon of memory and delivery
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Learn and present your speech the canon of memory and delivery

Learn and Present Your Speech:The Canon of Memory and Delivery

  • Memorized delivery is highly risky

  • Stay away from manuscript delivery (read it to audience)

  • Avoid impromptu delivery (with little preparation)

  • Use extemporaneous delivery (you determine in advance the organizational outline and the major ideas)


1 what is public opinion

AL AKHAWAYN UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES

COMMUNICATIONS STUDIES

1. What is Public Opinion

Lecture by Dr. Mohammed Ibahrine

based on Seitel’s The Practice of Public Relations


Definition of public opinion

Definition of Public Opinion

  • Public opinion consists of two components:

  • Public: signifies a group of people who share a common interest in a specific subject

  • Opinion: is the expression of an attitude on a particular topic


What are attitudes

What are Attitudes?

  • Attitudes are based on a number of characteristics

    • 1. Personal

    • 2. Culture

    • 3. Education

    • 4. Family

    • 5. Religion

    • 6. Social class

    • 7. Race

    • Please put them in another order


Definition of public opinion1

Definition of Public Opinion

  • Public opinion is the aggregate of many individual opinions on a particular issue that affects a group of people

  • Public opinion represents a consensus

  • Trying to influence an individual’s attitude is a primary focus of the practice of public relations


What are attitudes1

What are Attitudes?

  • Attitudes are based on a number of characteristics

    • Religion

    • Culture

    • Race

    • Social class

    • Education

    • Family

    • Personal


What are attitudes2

What are Attitudes?

  • These characteristics /socializing factors help influence the formation of attitudes


How are attitudes influenced

How are Attitudes influenced

  • Attitudes are

    • Positive/ for

    • Negative/against

    • Neutral/nonexistent


How are attitudes influenced1

How are Attitudes influenced

  • Most people do not care much for any one issue

  • A small percentage expresses strong support

  • Another small percentage expresses strong

    opposition

  • The so-called vast majority is smack in the middle


Question

Question

  • Please think of the publics of public relations


4 the publics of public relations

4. The Publics of Public Relations

Proponents, opponents and the uncommitted:

  • An institution must deal differently with

    • Those who support it

    • Those who oppose it


4 the publics of public relations1

4. The Publics of Public Relations

  • For supporters, communications that reinforce beliefs may be in order

  • But changing the opinions of skeptics calls for strong, persuasive communications

  • Often, particularly in politics, the uncommitted public is crucial


How are attitudes influenced2

How are Attitudes influenced

  • This group is the most readily influenced by a communicator’s message

  • (which group?)


How are attitudes influenced3

How are Attitudes influenced

  • Cognitive Dissonance concept developed by the political scientist Leon Festinger

  • Individuals tend

    • to avoid dissonant information

    • to seek consonant information

  • Public relations professionals should attempt to remove dissonance to reach their communicative goals


Motivating attitude change

Motivating Attitude Change

  • Abraham Maslow’s theory of Hierarchy of Needs

  • 1. The highest order

  • 2. The fourth level

  • 3. The third level

  • 4. The second level

  • 5 The lowest level


Motivating attitude change1

Motivating Attitude Change

  • Abraham Maslow’s theory of Hierarchy of Needs

  • 1. The lowest level physiological needs:

  • A person’s biological demands


Motivating attitude change2

Motivating Attitude Change

  • Abraham Maslow’s theory of Hierarchy of Needs

  • 2. The second level is safety needs:

    • Security

    • Protection

    • Peace


Motivating attitude change3

Motivating Attitude Change

  • Abraham Maslow’s theory of Hierarchy of Needs

  • 3. The third level is belonging needs:

    • Love

    • Acceptance

    • Affection


Motivating attitude change4

Motivating Attitude Change

  • Abraham Maslow’s theory of Hierarchy of Needs

  • 4. The fourth level is esteem:

    • Recognition

    • Prestige

    • Confidence

    • Leadership


Motivating attitude change5

Motivating Attitude Change

  • Abraham Maslow’s theory of Hierarchy of Needs

  • 5. The highest order is self-actualization:

    • Self-fulfillment


Power of persuasion

Power of Persuasion

  • By persuasion, we mean

    • “getting another person to do something through advice and reasoning”

  • Persuasion is the most essential element in influencing public opinion

  • Persuading is the goal of most public relations programs


What kinds of evidence persuade people

What Kinds of “Evidence” Persuade People

  • 1. Facts: Any good public relations program will always start with research

  • 2. Emotions: People do respond to emotional appeals

  • 3. Personalizing: People respond to personal experience

  • 4. Appealing to “you”: The one word that people never tire of hearing is “you”


Influencing public opinion

Influencing Public Opinion

  • Public opinion is a lot easier to measure than it is to influence

  • 1. The opinion to be changed must be identified and understood

  • 2. Target publics must be clear

  • 3. The public relations professionals must have in sharp focus the “laws” that govern public opinion


Influencing public opinion1

Influencing Public Opinion

  • The “Laws of Public Opinion” developed many years ago by social psychologist Hadley Cantril, remain pertinent

  • The attacks on America of September 2001 underscored the relevance of at least six of Cantril’s most important “Laws”


Cantril s laws of public opinion

Cantril’s Laws of Public Opinion

  • 1. Opinion is highly sensitive to important events

  • 2. Opinion is generally determined more by events than by words,

  • unless those words are themselves interpreted as an event


Cantril s laws of public opinion1

Cantril’s Laws of Public Opinion

  • 3. At critical times, people become more sensitive to the adequacy of leadership

    • If they have confidence in it, they are willing to assign more than usual responsibility to it

    • If they lack confidence in it, they are less tolerant than usual

  • 4. Once self-interest is involved, opinions are not easily changed


  • Cantril s laws of public opinion2

    Cantril’s Laws of Public Opinion

    • 5. People have more opinions and are able to form opinions more easily on goals than on methods to reach those goals

    • 6. If people in a democracy are provided with educational opportunities and ready access to information, public opinion reveals a hardheaded common sense


    Polishing the corporate image

    Polishing the Corporate Image

    • Most organizations and people are extremely sensitive to the way they are perceived by their critical publics

    • Management is no longer reluctant to step out publicly “to stand up for what it sands for”

    • In the wake of corporate scandals, smart companies realized they simply could not “hide” any longer from public scrutiny


    Polishing the corporate image1

    Polishing the Corporate Image

    • Corporate image is a fragile commodity

    • Positive corporate image is essential for continued long-term success

    • Most organizations understand that it takes a great deal of time to build a favorable image for a corporation

    • But it takes only one slip to create a negative public impression


    Polishing the corporate image2

    Polishing the Corporate Image

    • As Ray D’Argenio put it:

    • “Corporate communications can not create a corporate character. A company already has a character, which communications can reinforce”


    Beware the trap of public opinion

    Beware the Trap of Public Opinion

    • The difficult task in public relations is not to win a favorable public opinion for a product or an idea, but to maintain it

    • Communicators face a number of subtle yet lethal traps


    Beware the trap of public opinion1

    Beware the Trap of Public Opinion

    • 1. Cast in stone:

    • 2. Gut reaction:

    • 3. General public:

    • 4. Words move mountains:

    • 5. Brother’s keeper:


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