Facilitating pretend play skills for youngsters with autism through literacy based interventions
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Facilitating Pretend Play Skills for Youngsters with Autism through Literacy-Based Interventions. ISAAC, 2012 Joanne M. Cafiero Cynthia Pearl. Rationale for Project. High engagement in repeated readings using adapted literature Absence or low levels of pretend play

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Facilitating Pretend Play Skills for Youngsters with Autism through Literacy-Based Interventions

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Facilitating pretend play skills for youngsters with autism through literacy based interventions

Facilitating Pretend Play Skills for Youngsters with Autism through Literacy-Based Interventions

ISAAC, 2012

Joanne M. Cafiero

Cynthia Pearl


Rationale for project

Rationale for Project

  • High engagement in repeated readings using adapted literature

  • Absence or low levels of pretend play

  • Absence or low levels of interactive play

  • Prior Action Research on Pretend Play with Preschoolers with ASD


Facilitating pretend play through literacy interventions

Facilitating Pretend Play through Literacy Interventions

  • Environments:

    • self-contained ASD program in general education environment

    • Home

  • Inclusion opportunities:

    • in Specials, Recess and planned activities with typical peers

  • Partnership with teacher, family and consultant

  • Action Research Model


Action research

Action Research

  • Research conducted within the environment that results will be utilized

  • Goals, research questions taken from IEP or questions of practitioners

  • Can be messy and evolving

  • Utilizes qualitative and quantitative measurements

  • Facilitates immediate implementation of results


Why is pretend play important

Why is Pretend Play Important?

  • Play is the “work” of childhood

  • Presumes perspective taking

  • Skills correlate with language development

  • Evolves from solitary to parallel to interactive in typical children


Why is literacy important

Why is literacy important?

  • Visual medium targets strengths.

  • Current research dictates that providing opportunity facilitates literacy learning.

  • Literacy and AAC are inextricably entwined.

  • Reading and writing can segue into functional communication.


Facilitating pretend play skills for youngsters with autism through literacy based interventions

Teaching Pretend Play Scripts to Pre-K students with ASD Through Adapted Literature(Cafiero, Manthey-Silvio& Pearl, 2007; Cafiero & Pearl, 2009)

  • Collected language samples from typical kids

  • Developed adapted literature (text above; adapted text below) from sample

  • Read book in group reading for 3 weeks

  • Videotaped independent unprompted play for baseline and 5 intervention probes

Joanne M. Cafiero PhD, 2011


It s time to play with my toy cars by cindy pearl

It’s Time to Play with My Toy Carsby Cindy Pearl


Pretend play time to get gas

Pretend Play: Time to Get Gas

  • Book read in group instruction.

  • Each student had his/her own book.

  • Related Balanced Literacy activities with target words & sentences daily.

  • Videotaped baseline, intervention and 3 probes of individual students

  • Data taken from videotapes


Pretend play behaviors gas station actions

Pretend-play Behaviors: Gas Station: Actions

Putting man in car

Driving to gas pump

Putting in nozzle; filling up

Leaving gas station

Joanne M. Cafiero PhD, 2010


Pretend play behaviors gas station scripts

Pretend-play Behaviors: Gas Station: Scripts

“This is my car”

“Uh-oh, I’m out of gas.”

“I’m putting in gas.”

“I’m putting in more gas”

“Gas is finished, bye-bye.”

Joanne M. Cafiero PhD, 2010


Facilitating pretend play skills for youngsters with autism through literacy based interventions

Joanne M. Cafiero PhD, 2010


Facilitating pretend play skills for youngsters with autism through literacy based interventions

Joanne M. Cafiero PhD, 2010


Integrated literacy activities using balanced literacy model

Integrated Literacy Activities Using Balanced Literacy Model

  • Word Study Using Target Words

    • Word building

    • Phonics

    • Phonemic awareness

  • Writing Using Target Words

    • Sentence building

    • Close writing activities

  • Self-Selected Reading

    • Books made available for independent reading


Thematic curricular unit car wash

Thematic Curricular Unit: Car Wash


Results teaching pretend play through adapted literature

Results: Teaching Pretend Play Through Adapted Literature

  • Qualitative:

    • “crystal clear” speech and spontaneous generating of appropriate language.

    • Longer periods of engaging in targeted pretend play behaviors

    • Fewer off-task and stereotypic and self-stimulatory behaviors

    • Maintained play and language at 18 month probe

Joanne M. Cafiero PhD, 2011


Pretend play skill maintenance 1 5 years later

Pretend Play Skill Maintenance: 1.5 years later

  • Students maintained play scheme skills without book; more skills with book present

  • Students who learned scripts (Baby to Bed) maintained the non-linguistics (lullabye, “shhh”, kiss good night)

  • Students independently requested to play and generalized to novel objects & environments


New findings 3 years later

New Findings: 3 years later

  • Students from original study requested opportunities to pretend play with targeted items when given the opportunity.

  • Target students maintained 20-40% of scripts and 100% of actions

  • Target students selected Pretend Play activity as highly preferred reinforcer


Facilitating pretend play toy cars phase 2

Facilitating Pretend Play Toy Cars: Phase 2

  • Primary Autism Class

  • Implemented intervention with modeling and literature

  • Did not include robust literacy extension activities

  • Baseline & 3 Video Probes


Identifying specific play behaviors

Identifying Specific Play Behaviors

  • Observed typically developing kids engaging in the targeted pretend play

    • Pretend play included concrete figures, objects

  • Charted actions and scripts

  • Took photos of identified actions

  • Created literature using photos and scripts


Pretend play skill acquisition

Pretend Play Skill Acquisition


Observations

Observations

  • Increases in play actions

  • No Increases in play language (scripts)

  • Demonstrated interest in play schemes when others were engaged with it.

  • More interest in interactive play than in previous pilot study with younger CWA


Pretend play in the home my restaurant

Pretend Play in the home: My Restaurant

  • Restaurant theme selected from favorite pretend play activity of two typical brothers, 8-9 years old

  • Videotape of Restaurant play; actions & scripts identified

  • Selected 10 of most appropriate actions & scripts for book

  • Photographed boys engaged in activity for book: excluded adults and prompts


Pretend play teddy kenneth

Pretend Play: Teddy & Kenneth

  • Twin boys, 9 years old, Dx ASD

  • Non-verbal & limited speakers

  • Participated in structured literacy program in school

  • Majority of play time is solitary screen time (iPad, TV, videos)

  • Engaged parents

    • Read story 2x/day

    • Played restaurant 1x/day


My restaurant

My Restaurant

  • Parents and caregiver read story 2x day

  • Once with props; acting it out

  • Once without

  • Limited related literacy activities around target vocabulary (sentence building)

  • Weekly coaching and videotaped probes


My restaurant1

My Restaurant


Bethany is a customer in my restaurant

Bethany is a customer in My Restaurant


Hi welcome to my restaurant

Hi. Welcome to My Restaurant.


Here is your menu

Here is your menu.


Bethany reads the menu

Bethany reads the menu.


Can i take your order

Can I take your order?


Facilitating pretend play skills for youngsters with autism through literacy based interventions

What do you like to drink?Bethany says “I want some water, please.”


Here is your drink

Here is your drink.


What would you like to eat

What would you like to eat?

Bethany says: “I’d like a pizza”.


Here is your pizza

Here is your pizza.


Bethany eats her pizza

Bethany eats her pizza.


Here is your check

Here is your check.


Bethany pays the check

Bethany pays the check.


I put the money in my pocket

I put the money in my pocket.


Thank you please come back

Thank you, please come back.


The end

TheEnd


My restaurant measuring outcomes

My Restaurant: Measuring Outcomes

  • Simple data collection method

  • Weighted prompts for coding % independence

    • 3 fully independent

    • 2 Gestural prompt

    • 1 Verbal prompt

    • 0 No response

  • Observations of activity around theme noted anecdotally


My restaurant2

My Restaurant


Independence in pretend play kenneth

% Independence in Pretend Play: Kenneth


Independence in pretend play teddy

% Independence in Pretend Play: Teddy


Results

Results:

  • Increases in % independence in actions

  • Increases in % independence using scripts

  • More novel pretend play around toy foods

  • Increased engagement with play partners

  • Increases in independent performance of play actions and scripts with book present


What we learned

What We Learned:

  • Data collection should represent smaller increments of performance

  • Applying gentle pressure by putting hand on shoulder breaks autistic inertia in some children

  • Total package (story, word study, cross curricular activities) total immersion may be the factor that defines greater levels of Pretend Play skill acquisition


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